2The science of classifying organisms is called taxonomy The “father of modern taxonomy” was Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)Organisms are grouped into “taxa” based on their similarities to each other
3The Old System 5 Kingdom Classification System: Monera: all prokaryotesProtista: single-celled eukaryotes (protists)Fungi: multi-cellular heterotrophic sessile eukaryotesPlantae: multi-cellular autotrophic sessile eukaryotesAnimalia: multi-cellular heterotrophic motile eukaryotes
46 Kingdom Proposal Archebacteria EUbacteria 6 Kingdom Classification SystemKingdom Eubacteria: true bacteria(formerly in kingdom monera)Kingdom Archebacteria: extremophiles (formerly in kingdom monera)Kingdom Protista (same)Kingdom FungiKingdom PlantaeKingdom Animalia
6Organisms are grouped into smaller and smaller groups all the way down to their species A species is the most specific grouping and includes only organisms that can interbreed with each other and produce fertile offspring
8Ursus americanus American Black Bear Binomial Nomenclature: “a two-name system”First part of name: genus first letter always capitalizedSecond part of name: species first letter always lowercaseEntire name is underlined and italicizedNames must be submitted for acceptance by original discoverer, and are generally Latin or Latinized
9Often Latin names contain clues about the type of organism being described. Canis domesticusAnd closely related organisms are often in the same genus, also giving clues about their namesCanis lupusSome names are given after the discoverer, or the discovery location, or even a Latinized descriptive term in English
10Domain Archaea Formerly part of the kingdom monera Microbiologists who study bacteria determined that the DNA of these are much different from other, true bacteriaMost Archaea live in extreme conditions (very hot, acidic/basic, sulfurous, etc)
11Domain Eubacteria Formerly a part of the kingdom monera Name means “true bacteria”These are the kind of bacteria likely to make us sick, live in our gut to help us digest food, or be used in the making of cheeseBacilliStreptococcusStaphylococcusDicoccusSpirilla
12Domain EukaryaContains all of the eukaryotes (organisms with a nucleus in their cells)ProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia
14Kingdom FungiAll eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, sessile organismsIncludes: molds, mushrooms, rusts, lichensMycorrhizal associations allow plants to absorb more water and nutrients from the soil
15Coniferophytes (Pine Trees) Kingdom PlantaePrimitive PlantsBryophyte (Moss)Pteridophyte(Fern)Complex PlantsPteridophyte(Fern)All eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophic, sessile organismsProduce their own food from sunlight and carbon dioxideCommon Phyla:Bryophyta (mosses)Pteridophyta (ferns)Coniferophyta (conifers, like pine trees)Angiospermophyta (angiosperms, like flowering plantsConiferophytes (Pine Trees)Angiosperm; DicotAngiosperm; Monocot
16Porifera Ctenophora Cnidaria Nematoda Platyhelminthes All eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, motile (most) organismsCommon Phyla:Porifera (sponges, corral)Cnidaria & Ctenophora (jellyfish and similar animals)Platyhelmenthes (flat worms, tapeworms)Nematoda (small unsegmented worms)Platyhelminthes
19Dichotomous Keys 1a. Organism has 4 legs Go to # 2 1b. Organism has more than 4 legs Go to # 202a. Organism has a tail Go to # 32b. Organism has no tail Go to # 353a. Organism has stripes Bengal Tiger3b. Organism has no stripes African LionUsed to help identify unknown specimenWork by asking yes or no questions whose answers lead the reader to the correct taxa for the organism
20Dichotomous Key Try this one: 1a. Organism walks on all 4 legs (quadruped) 21b. Organism walks on 2 legs (biped) 82a. Organism has visible fur 32b. Organism has no visible fur3a. Organism lives in warm climates 73b. Organism lives in cold climates 44a. Organism has brown or black fur Ursus americanus4b. Organism has white fur Ursus maritimus
21Note Guide Who was Linnaeus? What are taxa? The old classification system is:The new classification system choices are:1.2.How are organisms scientifically named?What is the difference between the 3 domains?3.Name and describe the differences between the 4 kingdoms in Eukarya:4.
22Note Guide (pg. 2)Name and describe (or give an example of) each of the 10 phyla in Animalia:22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.9.10.How would you fully classify a human?What is the purpose of a dichotomous key?How do you read a dichotomous key?