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Chapter 8 The Muslim Empires Section 1 The Ottoman Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Muslim Empires Section 1 The Ottoman Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 The Muslim Empires Section 1 The Ottoman Empire

2 Rise of the Ottoman Turks The Ottoman dynasty began in the late 13 th century when Turks under leader Osman were given land in the NW corner of the Anatolian Peninsula by the Seljuk Turks in return for help fighting the Mongols. The Ottoman dynasty began in the late 13 th century when Turks under leader Osman were given land in the NW corner of the Anatolian Peninsula by the Seljuk Turks in return for help fighting the Mongols.

3 Osman

4 Rise of the Ottoman Turks Ottomans expanded westward to control Bosporus and the Dardanelles. Ottomans expanded westward to control Bosporus and the Dardanelles. These two straits, separated by the Sea of Marmara, connect the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. These two straits, separated by the Sea of Marmara, connect the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea.

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6 Rise of the Ottoman Turks Expanded into the Balkans in the 14 th century. Expanded into the Balkans in the 14 th century. Leaders became known as sultan and built a strong military. Leaders became known as sultan and built a strong military. 1 st developed an elite guard called janissaries, local Christians who converted to Islam and served as foot soldiers or administrators. 1 st developed an elite guard called janissaries, local Christians who converted to Islam and served as foot soldiers or administrators.

7 Rise of the Ottoman Turks With the use of new technology, firearms, Ottoman control spread. With the use of new technology, firearms, Ottoman control spread. Around 1400 they advanced north. Around 1400 they advanced north. Defeated the Serbs and annexed Bulgaria. Defeated the Serbs and annexed Bulgaria.

8 Expansion of the Empire Over the next 300 years, Ottoman rule expanded into Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe. Over the next 300 years, Ottoman rule expanded into Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe.

9 Fall of Constantinople Under Mehmet II, the Ottomans began to end the Byzantine Empire. Under Mehmet II, the Ottomans began to end the Byzantine Empire. Mehmet laid siege to Constantinople in Mehmet laid siege to Constantinople in 1453.

10 Constantinople

11 Fall of Constantinople After 2 months, the Ottomans breached the walls and sacked the city for 3 days. After 2 months, the Ottomans breached the walls and sacked the city for 3 days. Constantinople (later named Istanbul) dominated the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula. Constantinople (later named Istanbul) dominated the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula.

12 Sultan Selim I – took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia, including Muslim holy cities of Jerusalem, Makkah, and Madinah – took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia, including Muslim holy cities of Jerusalem, Makkah, and Madinah. Declared himself Muhammads successor. Declared himself Muhammads successor.

13 Western Asia & Africa Ottomans administered conquered regions through local rulers. Ottomans administered conquered regions through local rulers. Central govt appointed officials, called pashas, who collected taxes, kept law and order, & were responsible for the sultans court. Central govt appointed officials, called pashas, who collected taxes, kept law and order, & were responsible for the sultans court.

14 Europe Ottomans tried to complete their conquest, however, the Hungarians stopped them at the Danube Valley. Ottomans tried to complete their conquest, however, the Hungarians stopped them at the Danube Valley. The reign of Suleyman I, beginning in 1520, led to more attacks on Europe. The reign of Suleyman I, beginning in 1520, led to more attacks on Europe.

15 Suleyman I

16 Europe Ottomans seized Belgrade and advanced to Vienna, where they were defeated (1529). Ottomans seized Belgrade and advanced to Vienna, where they were defeated (1529). *Dont Write* *Dont Write* They extended their power into the western Mediterranean until Spain defeated them at the Battle of Lepanto (1571)

17 Europe 1683 – Ottomans laid siege to Vienna – Ottomans laid siege to Vienna. They lost, and never threatened central Europe again. They lost, and never threatened central Europe again.

18 Nature of Ottoman Rule The O.E. is a.k.a. the gunpowder empire The O.E. is a.k.a. the gunpowder empire Based on mastering the technology of firearms. Based on mastering the technology of firearms. Sultan was the head of the O.E. Sultan was the head of the O.E. It was a hereditary position. It was a hereditary position. Sultan was the political & military leader. Sultan was the political & military leader. Sons often battled for succession. Sons often battled for succession.

19 Nature of Ottoman Rule Empire adopted a centralized administrative system, and sultan became isolated in his palace. Empire adopted a centralized administrative system, and sultan became isolated in his palace. Commissioners recruited a special class of slaves, usually Christian boys. Commissioners recruited a special class of slaves, usually Christian boys. This is known as the Devshirme (boy levy). This is known as the Devshirme (boy levy). Converted to Islam and were made pages. Converted to Islam and were made pages.

20 Devshirme

21 Nature of Ottoman Rule Topkapi (iron gate) Palace was the center of sultans power. Topkapi (iron gate) Palace was the center of sultans power. Built by Mehmet II. Built by Mehmet II. Sultans private domain was called the harem (sacred palace). Sultans private domain was called the harem (sacred palace). Sultan often had several wives. Sultan often had several wives.

22 Topkapi Palace

23 Nature of Ottoman Rule When son became sultan, mother became the queen mother. She had great power. When son became sultan, mother became the queen mother. She had great power. Sultan controlled through a council that met 4 days a week. Sultan controlled through a council that met 4 days a week. Chief minister – grand vizier – led the meeting. Chief minister – grand vizier – led the meeting. Sultan sat behind a screen & indicated his desire to the grand vizier. Sultan sat behind a screen & indicated his desire to the grand vizier.

24 Nature of Ottoman Rule Empire was divided into provinces & districts, each governed by officials who collected taxes & supplied armies for the area. Empire was divided into provinces & districts, each governed by officials who collected taxes & supplied armies for the area. Sultan gave land to senior officials. Sultan gave land to senior officials.

25 Religion in the Ottoman World Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. Rulers were responsible for guidance and maintaining Islamic law. Rulers were responsible for guidance and maintaining Islamic law. Sultans gave their religious duties to religious advisors called the ulema. Sultans gave their religious duties to religious advisors called the ulema. Ulema administered the legal system & Muslim schools. Ulema administered the legal system & Muslim schools.

26 Religion in the Ottoman World Islamic law & customs were applied to all Muslims in the empire. Islamic law & customs were applied to all Muslims in the empire. Rulers were tolerant of non-Muslims. Rulers were tolerant of non-Muslims. Non-Muslims paid a special tax, but were free to practice religion. Non-Muslims paid a special tax, but were free to practice religion. Most Europeans remained Christian. Most Europeans remained Christian.

27 Ottoman Society Subjects divided in 4 occupational groups- Subjects divided in 4 occupational groups- Peasants Peasants Artisans Artisans Merchants Merchants Pastoral peoples Pastoral peoples

28 Ottoman Society State leased land to peasants. State leased land to peasants. Artisans organized into guilds that provided: Artisans organized into guilds that provided: Financial services Financial services Social security Social security Trained its members Trained its members

29 Ottoman Society Merchants were privileged. Merchants were privileged. They were exempt from taxes & were wealthy. They were exempt from taxes & were wealthy. Pastoral people were separated by their own laws & regulations. Pastoral people were separated by their own laws & regulations.

30 Women in Society Ottoman system gave more rights to women than most Islamic countries. Ottoman system gave more rights to women than most Islamic countries. Due to the Turkish view of women being equal to men. Due to the Turkish view of women being equal to men. Could own property & inherit property. Could own property & inherit property. Could not be forced to marry & could sometimes divorce. Could not be forced to marry & could sometimes divorce. Few served as senior officials. Few served as senior officials.

31 Problems in the Ottoman Empire O.E. reached its high point under Suleyman the Magnificent ( ). O.E. reached its high point under Suleyman the Magnificent ( ). Problems became visible in 1699, when the empire began to lose its territory. Problems became visible in 1699, when the empire began to lose its territory.

32 Problems ctd… After the death of Suleyman: After the death of Suleyman: Sultans became less involved in govt Sultans became less involved in govt Ministers exercised more power. Ministers exercised more power. Senior positions were assigned to children of elite groups Senior positions were assigned to children of elite groups The bureaucracy lost touch with rural areas, causing local officials to become corrupt. The bureaucracy lost touch with rural areas, causing local officials to become corrupt. Taxes rose as wars depleted the treasury. Taxes rose as wars depleted the treasury.

33 *Dont write this is just interesting material* Cafes began to appear in major cities. Cafes began to appear in major cities. Sultans outlawed drinking coffee and smoking tobacco. Sultans outlawed drinking coffee and smoking tobacco. If subjects were caught in these or other immoral or illegal acts, they were executed. If subjects were caught in these or other immoral or illegal acts, they were executed.

34 Ottoman Art Sultans supported the arts. Sultans supported the arts. The production of pottery, rugs, silk, other textiles, jewelry, arms, and armor all flourished. The production of pottery, rugs, silk, other textiles, jewelry, arms, and armor all flourished. Greatest accomplishment was in architecture, especially the mosques. Greatest accomplishment was in architecture, especially the mosques.

35 Hagia Sophia

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39 Ottoman Art Sinan was the greatest architect. Sinan was the greatest architect. Built 81 mosques. Built 81 mosques. A dome topped each mosque & framed by 4 towers (minarets). A dome topped each mosque & framed by 4 towers (minarets).

40 Suleimaniye Mosque, Istanbul

41 Ottoman Art Silk industry resurfaced under the Ottomans. Silk industry resurfaced under the Ottomans. It boasted distinctive designs & colors from different regions. It boasted distinctive designs & colors from different regions.


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