Presentation on theme: "Early Atomic Theory and the Structure of the Atom"— Presentation transcript:
1Early Atomic Theory and the Structure of the Atom Chemistry
2Structure of an Atom Discovery 1. Compare and contrast the different atomic models.Distinguish between the subatomic particles.Describe the structure of the nuclear atom.Define atomExplain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom.Define isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers.Calculate the number of electrons, proton, neutrons.Explain the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay.Characterize the different types of radiation.
3Atomic Structure Outline Make a timeline for the discovery of the structure of anPart 1: Find all 8 scientists involved with discovering the atom (Democritus, Aristotle, Dalton, Crookes, Thomson, Millikin, Rutherford, Chadwick)-give their name, approximate date, and discovery-explain the discovery in 1-2 sentences-show to teacher before doing Part 2Part 2: In chronological order, put the scientists, with their date, and one sentence explaining what they discovered-put this on 8 ½ x 14 paper (with title) - Be Neat!!
4Early Theories of Matter Democritus ( BC)- first person to propose the idea matter was not infinitely divisible and that matter was made of tiny individual particles called the atomAristotle ( BC)- rejected Democritus’ view and that atoms existed-since Democritus could not prove his theory,Aristotle’s view become widely knownJohn Dalton (1803)-revised Democritus’ view based on scientific research
5Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements vary.3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
6Changes to Dalton’s Atomic Theory Because of Dalton’s atomic theory, most scientists in the 1800s believed that the atom was like a tiny solid ball that could not be broken up into parts.Eventually, Dalton’s theory had to be revised as technology and new information became available:-atoms are divisible (made up of smaller particles)-all atoms of a given element do not haveidentical properties (isotopes)
7William Crookes (1880’s)-discovered the cathode ray, a ray of radiation that travels down a cathode ray tube.-accidental discoveryJJ Thomson (1890’s)-continuedcathode tube work andconcluded the electronwas smaller than even H-cathode ray was negative (because ittraveled away from the negative plateand attracted to the positive plate)-renamed the electron
8Robert Millikan (1909)-confirmed the charge of an electron and determined its mass Matter is not negatively charged, so atoms can’t be negatively charged either.If atoms contained extremely light, negatively charged particles, then they must also contain positively charged particles—probably with a much greater mass than electrons.
9Ernest Rutherford (1911)- most of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus, which is positively charged; most of the space comes from the electrons-by 1920 he concluded the positive charge was actually a proton (+1 charge)-“gold foil experiment”: a beam of positively charged subatomic particles toward a thin piece of gold foil
10~Because most particles passed through the foilthey concluded the atomis nearly all empty space.~Because so few particleswere deflected, theyproposed that the atomhas a small, dense,positively charged centralcore
11James Chadwick (1932)- nucleus contains another subatomic particle, the neutron, but does not carry a charge (neutral)Notes:-the proton and neutron are about the same size; each is about 1836 times larger than the electron-mass of an atom comes from the nucleus, but the volume (size) comes from the electron cloud
12What is an Atom? Activity ObjectivesDefine atom, atomic number, and mass number.Determine the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom.Differentiate between atoms and isotopes.Determine the charge on the atom based on if it gains or loses electrons.