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FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Landscape Restoration: Insights and Design Principles Gained From 25 Years Of Co-Evolution Of Science, Industry,

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Presentation on theme: "FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Landscape Restoration: Insights and Design Principles Gained From 25 Years Of Co-Evolution Of Science, Industry,"— Presentation transcript:

1 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Landscape Restoration: Insights and Design Principles Gained From 25 Years Of Co-Evolution Of Science, Industry, and Regulation, Related to Floridas Phosphate Mining Mark T. Brown Center for Wetlands Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences University of Florida

2 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 OR: The ecological engineering of adaptive self-organization

3 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Description of phosphate mining Emergy evaluation of mining and reclamation Quick photographic overview 25 years of Research Organization of the lecture...

4 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 I. Phosphate Mining and Reclamation Description, historical perspective, phosphate facts...

5 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008

6 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Main phosphate formation… the bone valley (1.3 million acres) Secondary area of mining (50,000 acres)

7 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Mining began in late 1800s Mined Peace River bottom Until late 1930s small scale - wide spread Large scale mining began in 1950s Currently about 5000 acres /year are mined Historical Perspective

8 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Mined area to date………………….320,000 acres Mining rate………………… ,000 acres/yr Total to be mined…….….700,000 acres Investment in facilities………...$10 billion Yearly wages…………………………….$300 million/yr Taxes paid………………………………..$800 million/yr Operating expenses (2001) Equip and supplies……….$990 million Electricity…………………….$100 million Services………………………..$178 million Phosphate mining facts...

9 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Phosphate Mining vs Everglades Restoration Phosphate Reclamation Everglades Restoration Total Area0.7 million Acres1.5 million acres Total cost$3.6 billion$7.8 billion Yearly Op. Costs$0.0$182 million

10 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 II. Quick Photographic Overview

11 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008

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30 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008

31 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Emergy Evaluation of Phosphate Mining and Reclamation

32 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Systems View and Emergy of Mining

33 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Emergy in Restoration...

34 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Benefits of Restoration...

35 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Benefits of Restoration...

36 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Net Benefits Ratio...

37 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 III. Phosphate Mine Restoration Research 25 years of studying self organization at one level and contributing to it at another...

38 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 No reclamation until pushed dirt around, planted 10% of area in trees, made lakes Success criteria = hide evidence of mining …required to reclaim wetlands Success criteria = 400 trees/acre, 80% cover by desirable species, no visible erosion …wetland reclamation, type for type Success criteria = more descriptive, but still counting present… Success criteria = more prescriptive..with some numerical criteria Historical Perspective… Reclamation

39 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Studies of the Interaction of Phosphate Mining and Wetlands Cataloged wetland responses to mining Evaluated wetland succession on clay settling areas Studied wetland succession

40 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Seed rain is significantly affected by distance...

41 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Studies of succession on clay settling areas

42 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Dry Wet Dry Tree ring analysis suggested that growth rates taper off in about the 20th year, and that variable growth rates result from wet and dry years

43 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Studies of a Method of Wetlands Reclamation Following Phosphate Mining Study of the use of muck from donor wetlands as a innoculum for constructed wetlands.

44 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 The first studies of mucking... ca 1981

45 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Vegetation growth with differing amounts of applied muck

46 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Wetland vegetation on mucked plots….

47 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Relation of plant diversity to landscape diversity (standard deviation of 30 measures of elevation within each plot).

48 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Development of Techniques and Guidelines for the Reclamation of Phosphate Mined Lands Studied the physical and biological characteristics of native Florida ecosystems…. Developed a handbook of restoration/construction techniques...

49 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Studies of Florida ecosystems lead to development of guidelines for constructing ecosystems on mined lands….

50 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Studies of drainage basin morphology lead to a cookbook for creating functional watersheds ….

51 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, kilometers High Relief Landscape…. small area of wetlands Low Relief Landscape…. larger area of wetlands

52 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Biogeomorphology of stream channels... Headwaters - no defined stream channel, broad flow-way, large accumulations of organic soils. Mid-reaches - more defined channel with moderate floodplain moderate accumulations of organic soils Lower reaches - defined channel, large floodplain with natural levies, mineral soils with little or no organic matter.

53 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Geomorphology of Florida ecosystems….

54 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Hydrologic regime and hydroperiod of Florida ecosystems

55 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Vegetative characteristics of Florida ecosystems...

56 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Range of hydrologic variation in Florida ecosystems...

57 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Study sites used to compare naturally reclaimed ecosystems Naturally Reclaimed Ecosystems

58 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Ecosystems that develop on mined lands are SOMEWHAT SIMILAR (about 60%) to ecosystems that develop on abandoned agricultural lands..

59 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Integrated landscape approach to reclamation design….

60 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008

61 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Snags provide bird perches…. The seed rain below perches was from 50 to 100 times that found in areas without perches.

62 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Successional Trajectories and Nuisance Species in Wetlands Studied the role of nuisance species Evaluated the function of micro- topographic relief

63 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Classical Succession… beginning w/ annuals… ending w/ long lived, climax species...

64 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Nuisance Species & Nutrient storage… PHOSPHORUS

65 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Nuisance Species & Nutrient storage… NITROGEN

66 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Soils develop with age but depend on: vegetative cover… hydrologic regime Soils….

67 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Simulation model of Pioneer Species…

68 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Simulation results…

69 FIPR Restoration Workshop April 3, 2008 Thank You… Questions?


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