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INTRODUCTION TO FINGERPRINTING Classification 1 Authors: Veon and OBoyle 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO FINGERPRINTING Classification 1 Authors: Veon and OBoyle 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO FINGERPRINTING Classification 1 Authors: Veon and OBoyle 2007

2 LOOP LOOPS –Comes in –Recurves –Goes back out same side –Usually curving around a delta 2

3 ARCH –In one side –Rises –Falls –Goes out the other side 3

4 WHORL –Ridge recurves around 2 deltas 4

5 In Depth Classifying 8-TYPES Looking in depth, there are really 8 basic patterns. 5

6 LOOP-In Depth LOOP-the ridges flow inward and then recurve in the direction of the origin. --A single delta type divergence must be present in front of the recurving ridges Radial Loop-Ridges flow from the recurve toward the radius or thumb side of the hand (approximately 5% of all fingerprint patterns) Ulnar Loop-Friction ridges flow from and recurve toward the ulna or little finger side of the hand, (Approximately 60% of all fingerprint patterns)PU 6 Radial Loop Ulnar Loop

7 ARCH-In Depth ARCH-Ridges enter on one side of the impression and tend to flow out the other side with a rise in the center Plain Arch-Ridges enter, wave or rise and exit smoothly Tented Arch-Ridges in the center thrust upward to give an appearance similar to a tent. Inside angle is smaller than 90 degrees Both types of arches comprise about 6% of all fingerprint patterns 7 Plain Arch Tented Arch

8 WHORL-In Depth WHORL-At least two delta type divergences are present with recurving ridges in front of each. (whorls comprise approximately 29% of all fingerprint patterns) Plain Whorl-One or more ridges form a complete revolution around the center (2 deltas) Central Pocket Loop Whorl- Some ridges form a loop pattern which recurves and surrounds a central whorl (1 delta) 8 Plain Whorl Central Pocket Loop Whorl

9 Additional Types Double Loop-Two separate loops are present, which sometimes surround each other. Sometimes called Double Loop Whorl (ying / yang) Accidental-Any pattern which does not conform to any of the previous patterns 9 Double Loop Accidental

10 BEYOND THE PATTERN FINGERPRINT INDIVIDUALIZATION

11 RIDGE ENDINGBIFURCATION LAKE or ENCLOSURE DOT or ISLAND INDEPENDENT RIDGESPUR BRIDGE or CROSSOVER 11

12 BIFURCATION 12

13 SPUR 13

14 RIDGE ENDING 14

15 BRIDGE or CROSSOVER 15

16 LAKE or ENCLOSURE 16

17 DOT or ISLAND INDEPENDENT RIDGE 17

18 Just the presence of these minutia does not individualize a print It is the exact type of minutia as well as the minutia location that individualizes a print NO TWO PRINTS HAVE EVER BEEN FOUND TO HAVE THE SAME MINUTIA IN THE SAME PLACE Therefore, you can conclude if you are comparing two prints, and they do have the same markings in the same place you must be looking at the same print What next... 18

19 So how many correlations prove a match? It was in 1918 when Edmond Locard wrote that if 12 points (Galton's Details) were the same between two fingerprints, it would suffice as a positive identification. This is where the often quoted (12 points) originated. Be aware though, there is "NO" required number of points necessary for an identification. Some countries have set their own standards which do include a minimum number of points, but not in the United States. Most agencies intentionally vary the number of correlations to avoid a standard or pattern 19


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