2Immigration Laws “Keep America American” 1921- Emergency Quota Act- limited immigration1924- National Origins Act- made immigrant restriction a permanent policyDue to these acts, Mexican immigration was in record numbers
3A Clash of ValuesSacco-Vanzetti Case- two Italian immigrants accused of murder, claimed they were innocent (many said they were convicted just because they were immigrants). Both executed.
4The KKKKu Klux KlanTargeted African Americans, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, & groups sharing “un-American” values2nd. Generation KKK 1915 by Wm. Simmons (a Methodist preacher!)Cross-burning, mob attacks, lynchingsDeclined in the 1920s (scandals & power struggles)
5Women’s Issues More single women working More women attended college Birth control (Margaret Sanger)Fashion changes:“bobbed hair”Flesh-colored stockingsDrank, smoke (in public!)Zelda FitgeraldMargaretZelda
6The “not so roaring” Twenties Prohibition- 18th. Amendment 1920 (outlawed alcohol- reduce unemployment, domestic violence, & poverty)Led to bootlegging (illegal production of alcohol) speakeasies (secret bars) & organized crimeAl Capone- most successful & violent gangster of the erast. Amendment- repealed the 18th amendment
7Culture Artists explored what it meant to be “modern” Greenwich Village & Chicago’s South Side- where artists, writers, intellectuals wentHopper- revived “realism”
8PoetsT.S. EliotThe Hollow Men (1925) contains some of Eliot's most famous lines, most notably its conclusion:This is the way the world endsNot with a bang but a whimper.
9Writers F. Scott Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway The Great Gatsby Although Nick Carraway idolized the riches and glamour of the age, he was uncomfortable with the unrestrained materialism and the lack of morality that went with it.Ernest HemingwayA Farewell to ArmsConsidered by some critics to be the greatest war novel of all time, the novel is told through the point of view of Lieutenant Frederic Henry, an American serving as an ambulance driver in the Italian army during WWI.
10Mass Entertainment- Radio & Movies 1920- one of the 1st. commercial radio broadcasts (station- KDKA)Radio- Amos ‘n’ Andy- stories of two African American characters (played by white actors)The Jazz Singer (1927)- 1st. “talkie” movieMass media- helped unify the nation & spread the new ideas & attitudes of the time
11Harlem Renaissance- rebirth of the African American arts Great Migration- movement of African Americans from the South to the NorthWriter- Langston HughesOne of the most original &versatile writers of the H. R.“I, Too” & “The Negro Speaksof Rivers”
12Harlem Renaissance Jazz & Blues Louis Armstrong- played trumpet & cornet (jazz- influenced by ragtime)Duke Ellington- composer, pianist, bandleader (not your marching band!) (“Mood Indigo”) Got his start at the Cotton ClubW.C. Handy- Blues composer & musician (the Father of the Blues)
14Presidents Harding Coolidge Return to normalcy (return to a “normal” life after WWIEnjoyed spending time with his “Ohio Gang” (friends)Teapot Dome ScandalHarding’s Vice President“Silent Cal”- simple, frugalProsperity rested on business leadership (govt. should interfere with business & industry as little as possible)
15A Growing Economy Henry Ford Assembly line Model T Ford’s Assembly LineModern Day Assembly Line
16Consumer Goods Electric razors, “kleenex”, frozen foods, hair dye Electric irons, vacuums, washing machines, refrigerators, gas stovesMouthwash, deodorants, cosmetics
17Airline Industry 1927- Charles Lindbergh (transatlantic solo flight) Amelia Earhart attempted to fly solo across the Atlantic
18Alabama in the 1920sIn a study- was among the worst states in the country on nearly every measure of its citizens’ quality of lifeEducation underfunded & ineffectiveIlliteracy rates were highPrison system mismanaged & corruptTax system unfair & inadequatePublic health was widely ignoredState Services improved, the economy improved, the KKK returned, Alabamian contributions towards the Jazz Age, migration of African Americans out of Alabama (loss of culture in Alabama with African Americans leaving)