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Classification Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification Notes

2 Taxonomy: the science of classification
Why do we need a system of classification? Brings order Logical means of naming organisms Scientific names are understood globally Common names are regional, not specific, and misleading (puma, cougar, mountain lion are the same animal) (ringworm and mealworm are not worms)

3 Aristotle Divided organisms into 2 groups
Plants: classified them on the basis of structure and size Animals: divided them on the basis of where they live

4 Polynomial System A series of additional descriptive names added to the genus name Example: the scientific name for a bee using the polynomial system: Apes pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdomine fusco, pedibus posticis glabris utrinque margine ciliates

5 Carolus Linnaeus Swedish botanist who developed a classification system based on structural features.

6 Seven taxa: Kingdom (largest category) Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Species (most specific)

7 Binomial Nomenclature
2 part naming system Latin (language used) Genus species (written in italics) Genus: a noun; always capitalized; may be abbreviated by using the first letter

8 Determining Relationship
Structure Biochemistry Development Phylogeny (evolutionary history)

9 Human Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia Order: Primata Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens

10 Our Current System Recently changed to 6 kingdoms
The prokaryotic kingdom (Monera) was split into 2 kingdoms

11 The Six Kingdoms 1. Eubacteria
Prokaryotes (no nucleus) Unicellular Mainly heterotrophs Reproduce through binary fission Live in diverse environments Ex: cyanobacteria, spirochetes

12 2. Archaebacteria Prokaryotes Unicellular Mainly heterotrophs
Suited to extreme environments Ex: halophiles

13 3. Protista Eukaryotic (have a nucleus) Unicellular
Protozoans (animal-like; heterotrophs) Algae (plant-like; autotrophs) Reproduce sexually or asexually Live in moist habitats Ex: amoeba, euglena, diatom

14 4. Fungi Eukaryotic Mostly multicellular
Saprophytes: obtain nutrients through absorption Reproduce sexually and asexually Most live in terrestrial habitats Ex: mushrooms, yeast, puffballs

15 5. Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotrophs
Most live in terrestrial habitats Reproduce sexually and asexually Ex: mosses, ferns, flowering plants

16 6. Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophs
Live in terrestrial and aquatic environments Most reproduce sexually Ex: worm, starfish, frog, snake, bird, dog

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