5Requirements (From Article I of Constitution) RepresentativeAt least 25Resident of US for 7 yearsSenatorAt least 30Resident of US for 9 years*Both must reside in the state
6Congressional Terms One Term=Two Sessions (years) January through November or December113th Congress began January 20131st session=Jan Dec. 20132nd session=Jan Dec.2014Joint Session: both Senate & House meet; usually happens for president’s State of the Union address
7House of Representatives (lower house) The number of representatives each state is allowed is based on population (from the census)Census: population count every 10 yearsCongressional District: areas with one representative elected from each districtConstituents: people represented435 people (7 from AL)Two-year terms
8Gerrymandering: oddly shaped districts designed to increase voting strength for a particular group Named for Elbridge Gerry1812 created new voting district in Andover, MassachusettsStill happening today!
12Representative’s Relationship with Constituents They focus on concerns of the people of their districtHOR is considered closest to the people & most democratic of the two houses of Congress
13Senate (upper house) 100 members (2 per state) Term: 6 years (staggered):Class I: expires 2019Class II: expires 2015Class III: expires 2017Staggered Terms: Approx. 1/3 of Senators are up for reelection every 2 yearsReason: Ensures stability (able to continue working on time-consuming legislation)
14Majority/Minority Party Majority Party: political party in which more than ½ of the members of the house (HoR or Senate) belongMinority Party: other party (has less control because they have fewer people in the house)*Currently, the Republicans are the Majority Party in the HOR & Democrats are the Minority Party
19Major Personalities HOUSE SENATE President Speaker of the House Joe Biden(vice president)President Pro TemporePatrick Leahy (D, VT)Speaker of the HouseJohn Boehner(R, OH)
20Congressional Leadership House of RepresentativesSpeaker of the House:Level of Power: has more power than any other in Congress(Nominated by majority party, but wins through vote by entire House.)Responsibilities:Presides over House*Decides what bills will be debated and when“The power of the speaker of the House is the power of scheduling.” –Tip O’Neill (former speaker)Assigns bills to committeesAppoints members to committees
21Congressional Leadership SenatePresident Pro Tempore: usually acts as chairperson; not as powerful as Speaker (usually the senior senator for majority party)“Pro Tempore” means for the time being because this position substitutes for the Vice President if he is unable to be therePresident: (Vice President) presiding officer; usually only appears for ceremonies or to break tie votes
22Floor Leaders (in both houses) Also called: Majority Leader/Minority LeaderMain Responsibility: Make sure laws passed are in the best interest of the partyJob Descriptions:Speak for party on issuesTry to sway votesPush bills through to be passed
23Whips (in both houses)Job Description: Stand in for floor leaders; keep track of where party leaders stand on certain issues & round up fellow senators/representatives for key votes
24Senate Party Leaders Democratic Whip Majority Leader Richard Durbin (D), IllinoisMajority LeaderHarry Reid(D), NevadaMinority LeaderMitch McConnell(R), KentuckyRepublican WhipJohn Kyl(R), Arizona
25House Party Leaders Republican Whip Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R), CaliforniaMajority LeaderEric Cantor(R), VirginiaMinority LeaderNancy Pelosi(R), OhioDemocratic WhipSteny Hoyer(D), Maryland
26Committees: “Little Legislatures” Turn to PAGE 142Senate Judiciary Committee
27Types of Committees Standing Committee vs. Select Committee Standing Committee: permanent committees that continue to work from session to sessionSelect Committee: created to do a special job for a limited time# of standing committees in House: 19# of standing committees in Senate: 16
28Other types of committees Joint Committee: include members of both housesExamples?Conference Committee: temporary committees that help House & Senate agree on a bill (come up with compromise)
29Committee Assignments Factors influencing committee assignmentsMade by leaders of political partiesSeniority: the longer a congressman has been in office, the better assignment he/she will receive
30Section 2: Powers of Congress Chapter 6Section 2: Powers of Congress
31Powers of Congress (From Article I of Constitution) To levy and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises.To borrow money.To regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the states, and with Indian tribes.To establish rules for naturalization (that is, becoming a citizen) and bankruptcy.To coin money, set its value, and punish counterfeiting.To fix the standard of weights and measures.To establish a post office and post roads.To issue patents and copyrights to inventors and authors.To create courts inferior to (that is, below) the Supreme Court.
32To define and punish piracies, felonies on the high seas, and crimes against the law of nations. To declare war.To raise and support an army and navy and make rules for their governance.To provide for a militia (reserving to the states the right to appoint militia officers and to train the militia under congressional rule).To exercise exclusive legislative powers over the seat of government (that is, the District of Columbia) and over places purchased to be federal facilities (forts, arsenals, dockyards, and "other needful buildings.")To "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for the carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States."
33Powers of Congress Expressed vs. Implied Example of Implied Power: Expressed/Enumerated: Powers listed specifically in the ConstitutionImplied: Powers not listed in the Constitution specifically, but guaranteed by the “Elastic” or “Necessary & Proper” ClauseExample of Implied Power:Section 8, Clause 18 “Elastic Clause”“to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution...powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States."Ex. Law to limit air/water pollution based on power to regulate interstate commerceEx. that was challenged by SC: Violence Against Women Act gave women right to sue attackers in federal court was declared unconstitutional in US v. Morrison, 2000
34Selected Legislative Powers of Congress Money PowersLevy and collect taxesBorrow moneyCoin, or create moneyCommerce PowersRegulate foreign & interstate (between states) tradeMilitary & Foreign PowersDeclare warRaise, support and regulate an army & navyOther Legislative PowersEstablish laws of naturalizationEstablish post officesProvide for laws necessary and proper for carrying out other listed powers (necessary and proper clause)
35Declaring WarCongress has power to declare war, but President often sends troops into action without this declarationExamples: Korea, Vietnam, IraqIn 1973 Congress passed War Powers Act during Vietnam War which required approval of Congress for any overseas troop deployment longer than 90 daysAfterward, Congress can issue joint resolution, an official statement from both houses, to authorize military actionExample: Oct Congress used joint resolution to authorize use of troops in Iraq
36Non-Legislative Powers of Congress (Checks Other Branches) Oversight: oversees other agencies to make sure they carry out lawsConfirmation: Senate confirms key officials appointed by presidentImpeachment: Remove from officeRatification: Senate must ratify all treatiesOverride: can override president’s vetoAmendment: can propose an amendment to Constitution; can use this power to change Constitution, even if it means reversing a ruling made by Supreme Court
37Section 3: Representing the People Chapter 6Section 3: Representing the People
38Requirements (From Article I of Constitution) RepresentativeAt least 25Resident of US for 7 yearsSenatorAt least 30Resident of US for 9 yearsReside in the state
39How much do they get paid? $6.00 per diem$1,500 per annum$8.00 per diem$158,100 per annum$162,100 per annum$165,200 per annum
40PERKS! Franking Privileges- free postage Low-cost Insurance Use of gyms, special restaurants and medical clinicCongressional Staff (assist congressmen/women)Arrange meetingsDeal with reporters & lobbyists: people hired by special groups to influence government decision makersReelection support
41Congressional Supports Committee Staff (assist committees)Draft bills, gather information, organize hearings, negotiate with lobbyists, etc.Support ServicesExamples: Congressional Research Service, General Accounting Office, etc.
42Three Major Roles of Congressmen LawmakingCasework (80,000 s/day!)Representing District/StatePork-barrel projects: projects that only benefit the congressman’s state or district
43Section 4: How a Bill Becomes Law Chapter 6Section 4: How a Bill Becomes Law
44ResolutionsFormal statements expressing opinions or decisions; many don’t become laws.Joint Resolutions: may become laws if signed by the president; used to propose amendments, designate money to special purposes, correct errors in bills previously passed
45Categories of BillsPrivate: dealing with people/usually people’s claims against the governmentPublic: dealing with entire nation/general matters such as taxation, civil rights, terrorism, etc.May be debated for months and receive a lot of media coverage
46Types of Bills Authorization-creates the program Example: Creation of Space ProgramAppropriation-provides the money for the billExample: Funds for Space ProgramBottom line: Must have $!
47Enacting LawsA law begins as a bill introduced either in the Senate or the HouseIf the bill deals with money/taxes, it must begin in the House. This gives the House the “power of the purse.”Bills must be passed in the same format by both houses before going to the President to be passed into law
48How a bill becomes law Go to page 160 All money bills must begin in HOUSE
49Rep/Sen introduces (in House or Senate) Given House or Senate bill numberReferred to committee/subcommitteeIf passed, reported to House/Senate by committee(If in HOR, House Rules Committee sets rules for debate)Floor DebateIf passed, sent to House/Senate (second house)(May be revised by Conference Committee if not passed by one or both houses)If passed by both, sent to President to signIf vetoed by President, must be passed by 2/3 majority in both houses to become a law
50BILL MUST BE PASSED IN IDENTICAL FORM BY BOTH HOUSES! Quick Caveat!BILL MUST BE PASSED IN IDENTICAL FORM BY BOTH HOUSES!
51A few more terms…Riders: completely unrelated amendments tacked onto a bill sent to floorFilibuster: talking a bill to death (only possible in Senate)Cloture: ending a filibuster with 3/5 member consent
52PRESIDENTIAL VETOINGIf the president doesn’t approve of the bill, he/she can reject it through a veto.TWO TYPES OF VETOESVeto: President doesn’t sign, may be passed by 2/3 of both houses (If not, bill dies.)Pocket Veto: After Congress has adjourned, president doesn’t sign…bill dies.