2Journal Entry – Tues. Feb 16 Read “An American Story” on page 386.What would life be like to be a freed slave during Reconstruction?Read “I know why the caged bird sings” by Maya AngelouHow had things changed in the 1960’s?
3Sec 1 Reconstruction Plans There were two basic plans for how to bring the South back into the Union following the Civil War
42 Differing Plans - Lincoln’s Plan – - Radical Republican’s Plan – A moderate policy that would reconcile the South with the Union instead of punishing it for treason- Radical Republican’s Plan –“revolutionize southern institutions, habits, and manners”
5Lincoln’s PlanIn Dec 1863, Lincoln set forth his plan in the Proclamation of Amnesty and ReconstructionAmnesty – a pardon to all Southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the U.S. and accepted the end of slavery
6Radical RepublicansLed by Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts.
73 Main Goals of Radical Republicans 1) prevent the leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war2) make the Republican Party powerful in the South3) Help African Americans achieve equality under the law and the right to vote.
8The Freedmen’s Bureau Established in the last years of the Civil War Meant to provide food, clothing, and education for the thousands of free African Americans in the South
9Discussion QuestionDo you think Presidents Johnson and Lincoln were wise in not seeking harsh treatment for the southern states in their plans for Reconstruction?
10Sec 2 Congressional Reconstruction Andrew Johnson became president after Lincoln’s assassinationHe was a former Democrat from Tennessee who had owned slaves
11Johnson’s reconstruction plan was much like Lincolns However, as Southern states rejoined the union, Republicans began to fear the Democrats influence in Congress
12Black Codes- laws passed in the South during Reconstruction to control FreedmenThese along with Democrats joining Congress outraged Republicans and made them enact their own Reconstruction plans
13In and effort to override the Black Codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Fearing the courts might overturn it, they introduced it as the 14th Amendment
14Congressional Elections of 1866 Republicans achieved an overwhelming victory, winning almost a 3 – 1 majority in Congress
15In March 1867, Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act By 1868 six states had rejoined the union, NC, SC, FL, AL, LA, AR
16Also in 1868, Johnson became the first president to be impeached However, the Senate was one vote short of removing him from office.
17Election of 1868Grant won the presidential election of 1868 on the Republican ticket
1815th AmendmentIn 1870, Congress passed the 15th Amendment, saying the right to vote “shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”.
19Sec 3 Republican RuleAs Southern politics and society changed, some began to try to profit from the change with power and money.
20Carpetbaggers – Northerners who moved to the South to profit from Reconstruction Scalawags –Southerners who worked with the Republicans in hopes of rising in societyFormer Whigs, small farm owners, businessmen
21Southern PoliticsMany educated blacks from the North served as early leaders. Former slaves soon became involved in the process.Saw success on all levels of government.Republicans also had support from poor white farmers.
22Reforms In the South Repealed Black Codes Medical Improvements (Hospitals, Etc.)New transportation systemsCorruption
23African American Communities EducationPublic Schools (40% enrolled by 1876)Beginnings of the HBCU systemChurches
24Southern ResistanceKu Klux Klan - started in 1866 by former confederate soldiers in Pulaski, Tenn.It’s goal was to retake the South for DemocratsEnforcement ActsFederal crime to interfere with votingFederal elections under the supervision of federal marshals.Ku Klux Klan Act
25Sec 4 Reconstruction Collapses Grant became president in 1868 but had little experience as a politician
26Scandals of Grant Second Term Whiskey RingCredit MobilierTweed Ring“Boss” Tweed
27Reconstruction EndsBy 1876 Democrats had taken back control of most of all the southern legislaturesJim Crow Laws – laws in the southern states after Reconstruction that stripped African Americans of basic rights like voting.
28Election of 1876Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes for president, who won 185 electoral votes
29Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden, who had 184 electoral votes, one away from winning the election
30Hayes was deemed the winner of the election through the Compromise of 1877 The deal allowed Hayes to be named the winner in return for pulling the troops out of the South and ending reconstruction
31With the end of Reconstruction former slaves lost all hope to receive land of their own Most resorted to either becoming tenant farmers or share croppers
32Essay QuestionExplain the events of the Reconstruction period in terms of the competing plans, Republican control, and then the end of Reconstruction