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Protestant Reformation

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Presentation on theme: "Protestant Reformation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Protestant Reformation
J. Newman World History 9

2 “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.”

3 Desiderius ERASMUS “Christianity should show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than provide a system of beliefs that people have to practice to be saved.”

4 Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
Church officials concerned with money Used their church offices to advance their careers & their wealth Detail of a fresco (1481–82) by Perugino in the Sistine chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.

5 Martin Luther 1483-1546 *not MLK Jr. from the 1950s-1960s
Monk & professor at the Univ. of Wittenberg (Germany) Studied the Bible; came to believe that humans are not saved through their good works, but through their faith in God-- “justification by faith alone” Hans and Margarethe Luther Luther as an Augustinian Monk

6 Selling of Indulgences
Luther offended by Johann Tetzel selling indulgences Indulgences- “tickets to heaven”- a piece of paper bought for living & dead relatives & pardoned your sins (not required to repent). “As soon as money in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory's fire springs." --Tetzel

7 Ninety-Five Theses Oct. 31, 1517—Luther nailed a list of 95 points on the Castle Church doors at Wittenberg 95 things he considered the Church & Pope were doing wrong The printing press helped to spread his writings like wildfire!

8 Break with the Church Jan. 1521, the pope excommunicated Luther
“papal bull” excommunicating Luther

9 Diet of Worms- 1521 Luther appeared before many religious leaders and rulers Luther ordered to recant, he refused! Luther declared an outlaw No one was to give him food or shelter Luther’s works were to be burned Do not write quote: “I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. May God help me. Amen.”- Luther

10 The End Wartburg Castle Frederick of Saxony hid Luther & allowed him to continue to write in secrecy Luther translated the New Testament into German Luther died 1546 Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith The room in Wartburg where Luther translated the New Testament into German. Luther's tombstone in the Castle Church in Wittenberg.

11 Marriage & Family Katharina von Bora
One of 12 nuns Luther helped escape from a convent She was 26, he was 41 years old They had 6 children

12 Politics & Religion in the German Reformation
Peace of Augsburg- The German states were now free to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism

13 Reformation in England
King Henry VIII Catholic King of England Married his brother’s wife after his brother died Strongest desire was to have a son, an heir

14 Wife #1- Catherine of Aragon (m.1509-1533)
Unable to give Henry a son Had a daughter- Mary Henry wanted to annul the marriage Henry establishes the Church of England to get the annulment- 1534

15 Mary Catherine of Aragon’s daughter Devout Catholic
Later, as Queen, she will persecute the Protestants Nickname- Bloody Mary

16 Wife #2- Anne Boleyn (m.1533-1536)
Mistress of Henry VIII while married to Catherine Supposedly pregnant when she marries Henry Has a daughter- Elizabeth Accused of treason & adultery Beheaded

17 Elizabeth Anne Boleyn’s daughter Protestant Half-sister of Mary
Never marries or has children The Virgin Queen Tolerant of other religions

18 Wife #3- Jane Seymour (m.1536-1537)
Able to give Henry a son Edward VI Dies shortly after giving birth

19 Edward VI Only surviving son of Henry and Jane Protestant
Died at the age of 15 due to tuberculosis

20 Wife #4- Anne of Cleves (m.1540 Jan.-July)
Married less than a year Henry compared her looks to a “Flanders Mare” Like being married to your sister. No true love between them. No children Henry divorces her

21 Wife #5- Katherine Howard (m.1540-1542)
30 yrs. younger than Henry when married No children Accused of infidelity & then beheaded

22 Wife #6- Katherine Parr (m.1543-1547)
No children Became Henry’s companion & nurse in his last years Survives Henry Marries an “old love” after Henry dies

23 Rhyme to Remember the Wives & their Fate
Divorced Beheaded Died Survived Catherine Anne Jane Katherine


25 The Catholic “Reformation”
NOT a movement to reform the Catholic Church, but a movement to WIN Protestants back to the Catholic Church or destroy them Ignatius of Loyola & the Jesuits- spread the message of the Catholic Church

26 The Council of Trent Both faith and good works were necessary for salvation The Seven Sacraments are upheld Belief in purgatory and in the use of indulgences were strengthened, although the abuse/selling of indulgences were forbidden

27 Difference b/w High Renaissance and Northern Renaissance Art
Study Guide Renaissance and Reformation Fill in the blank, Short Answer/Response (paragraph), Extended Response (page) Renaissance Difference b/w High Renaissance and Northern Renaissance Art Vocab. Terms- Renaissance, Renaissance man, vernacular Who wrote The Prince and what was it about Humanism- what was it, who were the humanists, inspired by?, father of…, Liberal arts studies Printing press- inventor & impact Who wrote The Book of the Courtier and what was it about Medici Family- their importance

28 Reformation Quote- explain it- “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.” Name 2 abuses that The Church participated in Martin Luther- how he became a monk, what he believed, issue of indulgences & 95 Theses (Tetzel), Pope’s response, Diet of Worms- results, impact on/of Luther Peace of Augsburg Henry VIII- motivation for annulment 6 wives- briefly describe each and what happened to them (remember the rhyme) Order Henry’s children rules and their faith (protestant or catholic?) The Catholic “Reformation” (what was it), Ignatius of Loyola, Council of Trent (3 statements made)

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