3 Desiderius ERASMUS“Christianity should show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than provide a system of beliefs that people have to practice to be saved.”
4 Religion on the Eve of the Reformation Church officials concerned with moneyUsed their church offices to advance their careers & their wealthDetail of a fresco (1481–82) by Perugino in the Sistine chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.
5 Martin Luther 1483-1546 *not MLK Jr. from the 1950s-1960s Monk & professor at the Univ. of Wittenberg (Germany)Studied the Bible; came to believe that humans are not saved through their good works, but through their faith in God-- “justification by faith alone”Hans and Margarethe LutherLuther as anAugustinian Monk
6 Selling of Indulgences Luther offended by Johann Tetzel selling indulgencesIndulgences- “tickets to heaven”- a piece of paper bought for living & dead relatives & pardoned your sins (not required to repent).“As soon as money in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory's fire springs." --Tetzel
7 Ninety-Five ThesesOct. 31, 1517—Luther nailed a list of 95 points on the Castle Church doors at Wittenberg95 things he considered the Church & Pope were doing wrongThe printing press helped to spread his writings like wildfire!
8 Break with the Church Jan. 1521, the pope excommunicated Luther “papal bull” excommunicating Luther
9 Diet of Worms- 1521Luther appeared before many religious leaders and rulersLuther ordered to recant, he refused!Luther declared an outlawNo one was to give him food or shelterLuther’s works were to be burnedDo not write quote: “I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. May God help me. Amen.”- Luther
10 The EndWartburg CastleFrederick of Saxony hid Luther & allowed him to continue to write in secrecyLuther translated the New Testament into GermanLuther died 1546Lutheranism was the first Protestant faithThe room in Wartburg where Luther translated the New Testament into German.Luther's tombstone in the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
11 Marriage & Family Katharina von Bora One of 12 nuns Luther helped escape from a conventShe was 26, he was 41 years oldThey had 6 children
12 Politics & Religion in the German Reformation Peace of Augsburg- The German states were now free to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism
13 Reformation in England King Henry VIIICatholicKing of EnglandMarried his brother’s wife after his brother diedStrongest desire was to have a son, an heir
14 Wife #1- Catherine of Aragon (m.1509-1533) Unable to give Henry a sonHad a daughter- MaryHenry wanted to annul the marriageHenry establishes the Church of England to get the annulment- 1534
15 Mary Catherine of Aragon’s daughter Devout Catholic Later, as Queen, she will persecute the ProtestantsNickname- Bloody Mary
16 Wife #2- Anne Boleyn (m.1533-1536) Mistress of Henry VIII while married to CatherineSupposedly pregnant when she marries HenryHas a daughter- ElizabethAccused of treason & adulteryBeheaded
17 Elizabeth Anne Boleyn’s daughter Protestant Half-sister of Mary Never marries orhas childrenThe Virgin QueenTolerant of otherreligions
18 Wife #3- Jane Seymour (m.1536-1537) Able to give Henry a sonEdward VIDies shortly after giving birth
19 Edward VI Only surviving son of Henry and Jane Protestant Died at the age of 15 due to tuberculosis
20 Wife #4- Anne of Cleves (m.1540 Jan.-July) Married less than a yearHenry compared her looks to a “Flanders Mare”Like being married to your sister. No true love between them.No childrenHenry divorces her
21 Wife #5- Katherine Howard (m.1540-1542) 30 yrs. younger than Henry when marriedNo childrenAccused of infidelity & then beheaded
22 Wife #6- Katherine Parr (m.1543-1547) No childrenBecame Henry’s companion & nurse in his last yearsSurvives HenryMarries an “old love” after Henry dies
23 Rhyme to Remember the Wives & their Fate DivorcedBeheadedDiedSurvivedCatherineAnneJaneKatherine
25 The Catholic “Reformation” NOT a movement to reform the Catholic Church, but a movement to WIN Protestants back to the Catholic Church or destroy themIgnatius of Loyola & the Jesuits- spread the message of the Catholic Church
26 The Council of TrentBoth faith and good works were necessary for salvationThe Seven Sacraments are upheldBelief in purgatory and in the use of indulgences were strengthened, although the abuse/selling of indulgences were forbidden
27 Difference b/w High Renaissance and Northern Renaissance Art Study Guide Renaissance and Reformation Fill in the blank, Short Answer/Response (paragraph), Extended Response (page)RenaissanceDifference b/w High Renaissance and Northern Renaissance ArtVocab. Terms- Renaissance, Renaissance man, vernacularWho wrote The Prince and what was it aboutHumanism- what was it, who were the humanists, inspired by?, father of…,Liberal arts studiesPrinting press- inventor & impactWho wrote The Book of the Courtier and what was it aboutMedici Family- their importance
28 ReformationQuote- explain it- “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.”Name 2 abuses that The Church participated inMartin Luther- how he became a monk, what he believed, issue of indulgences & 95 Theses (Tetzel), Pope’s response, Diet of Worms- results, impact on/of LutherPeace of AugsburgHenry VIII- motivation for annulment6 wives- briefly describe each and what happened to them (remember the rhyme)Order Henry’s children rules and their faith (protestant or catholic?)The Catholic “Reformation” (what was it), Ignatius of Loyola, Council of Trent (3 statements made)
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