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Chapter 18 The Progressive Movement Section 1 The Roots of Progressivism.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 The Progressive Movement Section 1 The Roots of Progressivism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 The Progressive Movement Section 1 The Roots of Progressivism

2 Progressivism Ideas on how to fix problems in American Society

3 Most believed that the government should be more involved Belonged to both political parties Educated Middle Class Reaction against Laissez-Faire economics

4 Groups/Movements for Progressivism

5 1. Muckrakers Journalist who investigated social conditions and political corruption Got the name from TR Became a competition to see who could expose the most corruption


7 Democracy and Progressivism MORE POWER TO VOTERS!!!! Help end corruption in govt The only way to make change is through the Vote!

8 More Voting Rights!!! –Direct Primaries Election to narrow choices –17 th Amendment Voters choose Senators –Initiative Citizens propose laws –Referendum Voters have final say in laws –Recall Removing officials from office

9 3. Suffrage Movement Campaign for women to get the right to vote Suffrage: Right to vote

10 Suffragists strategies (How to get the vote) Constitutional Amendment Individual States granting the right to vote

11 The Beginning of Womens Suffrage Seneca Falls Convention 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott –Worked to end slavey and gain suffrage –Were labeled as unfeminine and immoral Felt left out when the 15 th Amendment was passed

12 NAWSA (1880) National American Woman Suffrage Association Worked to promote social reforms Pass protective labor laws THE VOTE!!!!

13 Leaders of the Suffragist Movement

14 Susan B. Anthony Worked with temperance movement and to abolish slavery 1872-Anthony and 12 other women cast illegal votes in the presidential election

15 Alice Paul Radical leader: too militant for NAWSA Used aggressive tactics to get the vote Formed National Womans Party

16 National Womens Party

17 Carrie Chapman Catt 1915: Became NAWSAs leader Worked with Wilson to get the vote

18 Those who opposed the vote said: Women had enough power without the vote Would make them too masculine

19 Early 19 th Century Women 1. Unable to vote. 2. Legal status of a minor. 3. Single could own her own property; male relatives had final say 4. Married no control over her property or her children. 5. Could not initiate divorce. 6. Couldnt make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husbands permission 7. Marriage to a non citizen=loss of citizenship

20 June 1919: Senate finally passed 19 th Amendment August 26, 1920: ¾ states needed ratified the amendment Went into effect as the 19 th Amendment

21 Bellringer #8 8/30/10 Who was Alice Paul? What tactics did the NWP use to bring sympathy to the suffrage cause? Describe. What amendment was passed that gave women the right to vote?

22 4. Social Welfare Progressivism Focus on social problems, crime, illiteracy, alcohol abuse, child labor and health and safety of Americans

23 Campaign against Child Labor In 1900, 1.7 million children under the age of 16 worked outside the home The Bitter Cry of the Children-1906 book, John Spargo, discussed coal mines

24 Progressives worked to set: Minimum age for employment and maximum hours a child could work Education laws-requiring children to be in school

25 5. Health and Safety Codes Factories, coal mines, and railroads very dangerous

26 1911: Triangle Shirtwaist Company-NYC, 150 women workers died in a fire b/c only one open exit-other doors locked from the outside

27 RESULTS: building codes dealing with fire hazards, unsafe machinery, and working conditions

28 6. Prohibition Movement Many progressives believed alcohol was the cause of most of Americas problems WCTU Anti-Saloon League

29 7. Progressives vs. Big Business Too much wealth in the hands of too few Wanted to break up trusts and monopolies Socialism: redistribute the wealth


31 Chapter 18 Section 2, 3, and 4

32 Progressive Presidents

33 Roosevelt Foreign Affairs: Social Darwinist Domestic Affairs: Progressive

34 Square Deal TRs promise of fair and equal treatment for all.

35 1902 Coal Strike 150,000 workers TR steps in Owners agree to arbitration SIGNIFICANCE –1 st step in govt acting as 3 rd party arbiter –Role of Govt in Business Grows

36 Role of Govt in Business continues to grow Bureau of Corporations –Established in1903 –to investigate corporations and issue reports on their activities US Steel investigated in1904 –gentlemans agreement Open books to govt, agree to fix problems before court actions. Allowed govt to regulate big business w/o having to sacrifice economic efficiency

37 Social Reforms: The Jungle by Upton Sinclair

38 Pure Food and Drug Act: 1906 Prohibited the manufacture, sale or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drugs

39 Meat Inspection Act: 1906 Required federal inspection of meat, and Agricultural Dept to set standards of cleanliness in meatpacking plants

40 Conservation in America:

41 Newlands Reclamation Act: 1902 Paid for irrigation and land development projects to increase Western States Development

42 Gifford Pinchot and US Forrest Service Nature Must be preserved –Added over 100 million acres to the protected national forests, established 5 new national parks and 51 federal wildlife preserves

43 Bellringer # 9 8/31/10 What was The Jungle? Who wrote it? What was the significance? List and describe the two acts that it led to.

44 Taft: Elected in 1908 –TR wanted him to continue progressive programs –Taft did not like confrontation Back to more Laissez Faire Style Govt More traditional Republican

45 Tariff Issues: Wanted to lower tariffs Compromised with Traditional Republicans and backed off on Progressive reforms –Result: Payne-Aldrich Tariff- barely cut tariffs and actually raised them on some goods –Progressives felt betrayed

46 Ballinger-Pinchot Affair: Corruption and Anti-Progressive?? Richard Ballinger: Secretary of the Interior- –Accused of giving public land to private companies –Bribes? Taft felt the charges were groundless, did nothing. Most Progressives felt Taft had lost TRs vision

47 Tafts Successes: Childrens Bureau: investigated and publicized problems in child labor Bureau of Mines: monitor activities of mining companies and expanded national forests

48 Taft: A failure as a Progressive? TR thought so –Returns from Africa –Announces he will run for president in term President????? –Taft is Republican –TR is Republican How can they both run???


50 Election of 1912: Republican Party Splits: Conservatives supported Taft Progressives supported Roosevelt (not enough Republican support, so TR left the Party and joined the new Progressive Party) Wilson: Democratic nominee Taft: Republican nominee Roosevelt: Progressive nominee (Bull Moose Party)


52 New Nationalism vs New Freedom

53 Roosevelts New Nationalism: Strong federal govt to monitor big business Legislation to protect women and children in the workplace Workers compensation

54 Wilsons New Freedom: Break up monopolies and trusts Regulate banking system Lower tariffs

55 Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win the Presidency. 1st democrat elected since 1892

56 Woodrow Wilson

57 Tariffs: Personally appeared before Congress to present his ideas. Wanted lower tariffs to force American businesses to be under the constant necessity to be efficient, economical, and enterprising 1913: Underwood Tariff- reduced tariffs

58 Federal Reserve System: Banks would keep a portion of deposits in regional reserve banks (12)- for emergencies Board of Governors: appointed by pres to control interest rates reserve banks charged other banks –Indirectly controlled rates across nation –Indirectly controlled money supply

59 Federal Trade Commission: set up to investigate and monitor American business could enforce anti-trust laws (not to break up big business, but work with them to limit unfair limits on competition)

60 Clayton Antitrust Act- Prevented price discrimination –Businesses could not charge diff prices to diff customers Gave unions more power –Were not unlawful, did not restrain trade –Gave unions the right to exist

61 Keating-Owen Child Labor Act Prohibited children under 14 from working in factories producing goods for interstate commerce(was shot down by supreme court)

62 Adamson Act Established 8 hour workday for rail workers

63 Federal Farm Loan Board Provided farmers with long-term loans at low interest rates

64 Failures of Progressivism: Did nothing to help African Americans

65 Many African Americans took the Progressive spirit and worked for their own advancement: Niagara Movement- 1905, WEB and 28 other leaders met (on Canadian side- no US hotel would host them) NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People-1909 –Both groups believed the vote was essential for change – The power of the ballot we need in sheer self- defense, else what shall save us from a second slavery WEB –Work through the courts to make changes

66 Legacy of Progressivism: Americans began to expect more from their government. Regulate economy and solve social problems Progressives expanded democracy, and improved the lives of men, women and children. Progressivism ended b/c of the concerns of WWI

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