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Chapter 18 The Progressive Movement

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1 Chapter 18 The Progressive Movement
Section 1 The Roots of Progressivism

2 Ideas on how to fix problems in American Society
Progressivism Ideas on how to fix problems in American Society

3 Most believed that the government should be more involved
Belonged to both political parties Educated Middle Class Reaction against Laissez-Faire economics

4 Groups/Movements for Progressivism

5 1. Muckrakers Journalist who investigated social conditions and political corruption Got the name from TR Became a competition to see who could expose the most corruption


7 Democracy and Progressivism
MORE POWER TO VOTERS!!!! Help end corruption in gov’t The only way to make change is through the Vote!

8 More Voting Rights!!! Direct Primaries 17th Amendment Initiative
Election to narrow choices 17th Amendment Voters choose Senators Initiative Citizens propose laws Referendum Voters have final say in laws Recall Removing officials from office

9 3. Suffrage Movement Campaign for women to get the right to vote
Suffrage: Right to vote

10 Suffragists strategies (How to get the vote)
Constitutional Amendment Individual States granting the right to vote

11 The Beginning of Women’s Suffrage Seneca Falls Convention 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Worked to end slavey and gain suffrage Were labeled as unfeminine and immoral Felt left out when the 15th Amendment was passed

12 NAWSA (1880) National American Woman Suffrage Association
Worked to promote social reforms Pass protective labor laws THE VOTE!!!!

13 Leaders of the Suffragist Movement

14 Susan B. Anthony Worked with temperance movement and to abolish slavery 1872-Anthony and 12 other women cast illegal votes in the presidential election

15 Alice Paul Radical leader: too militant for NAWSA
Used aggressive tactics to get the vote Formed National Woman’s Party

16 National Women’s Party

17 Carrie Chapman Catt 1915: Became NAWSA’s leader
Worked with Wilson to get the vote

18 Those who opposed the vote said:
Women had enough power without the vote Would make them too masculine

19 Early 19th Century Women Unable to vote. Legal status of a minor.
Single  could own her own property; male relatives had final say Married  no control over her property or her children. Could not initiate divorce. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission 7. Marriage to a non citizen=loss of citizenship

20 June 1919: Senate finally passed 19th Amendment
August 26, 1920: ¾ states needed ratified the amendment Went into effect as the 19th Amendment

21 Bellringer #8 8/30/10 Who was Alice Paul? What tactics did the NWP use to bring sympathy to the suffrage cause? Describe. What amendment was passed that gave women the right to vote?

22 4. Social Welfare Progressivism
Focus on social problems, crime, illiteracy, alcohol abuse, child labor and health and safety of Americans

23 Campaign against Child Labor
In 1900, 1.7 million children under the age of 16 worked outside the home The Bitter Cry of the Children-1906 book, John Spargo, discussed coal mines

24 Progressives worked to set:
Minimum age for employment and maximum hours a child could work Education laws-requiring children to be in school

25 5. Health and Safety Codes
Factories, coal mines, and railroads very dangerous

26 1911: Triangle Shirtwaist Company-NYC, 150 women workers died in a fire b/c only one open exit-other doors locked from the outside

27 RESULTS: building codes dealing with fire hazards, unsafe machinery, and working conditions

28 6. Prohibition Movement Many progressives believed alcohol was the cause of most of America’s problems WCTU Anti-Saloon League

29 7. Progressives vs. Big Business
Too much wealth in the hands of too few Wanted to break up trusts and monopolies Socialism: redistribute the wealth


31 Chapter 18 Section 2, 3, and 4

32 Progressive Presidents

33 Roosevelt Foreign Affairs: Social Darwinist
Domestic Affairs: Progressive

34 Square Deal TR’s promise of fair and equal treatment for all.

35 1902 Coal Strike 150,000 workers TR steps in
Owners agree to arbitration SIGNIFICANCE 1st step in gov’t acting as 3rd party arbiter Role of Gov’t in Business Grows

36 Role of Gov’t in Business continues to grow
Bureau of Corporations Established in1903 to investigate corporations and issue reports on their activities US Steel investigated in1904 “gentleman’s agreement” Open books to gov’t, agree to fix problems before court actions. Allowed gov’t to regulate big business w/o having to sacrifice economic efficiency

37 Social Reforms: The Jungle by Upton Sinclair

38 Pure Food and Drug Act: 1906 Prohibited the manufacture, sale or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drugs

39 Meat Inspection Act: 1906 Required federal inspection of meat, and Agricultural Dept to set standards of cleanliness in meatpacking plants

40 Conservation in America:

41 Newlands Reclamation Act: 1902
Paid for irrigation and land development projects to increase Western States Development

42 Gifford Pinchot and US Forrest Service
Nature Must be preserved Added over 100 million acres to the protected national forests, established 5 new national parks and 51 federal wildlife preserves

43 Bellringer # 9 8/31/10 What was The Jungle? Who wrote it? What was the significance? List and describe the two acts that it led to.

44 Taft: Elected in 1908 TR wanted him to continue progressive programs
Taft did not like confrontation Back to more Laissez Faire Style Govt More traditional Republican

45 Tariff Issues: Wanted to lower tariffs
Compromised with Traditional Republicans and backed off on Progressive reforms Result: Payne-Aldrich Tariff- barely cut tariffs and actually raised them on some goods Progressives felt betrayed

46 Ballinger-Pinchot Affair: Corruption and Anti-Progressive??
Richard Ballinger: Secretary of the Interior- Accused of giving public land to private companies Bribes? Taft felt the charges were groundless, did nothing. Most Progressives felt Taft had lost TR’s vision

47 Taft’s Successes: Children’s Bureau: investigated and publicized problems in child labor Bureau of Mines: monitor activities of mining companies and expanded national forests

48 Taft: A failure as a Progressive?
TR thought so Returns from Africa Announces he will run for president in 1912 3 term President????? Taft is Republican TR is Republican How can they both run???


50 Election of 1912: Republican Party Splits:
Conservatives supported Taft Progressives supported Roosevelt (not enough Republican support, so TR left the Party and joined the new Progressive Party) Wilson: Democratic nominee Taft: Republican nominee Roosevelt: Progressive nominee (Bull Moose Party)


52 New Nationalism vs New Freedom

53 Roosevelt’s New Nationalism:
Strong federal gov’t to monitor big business Legislation to protect women and children in the workplace Workers compensation

54 Wilson’s New Freedom: Break up monopolies and trusts
Regulate banking system Lower tariffs

55 Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win the Presidency. 1st democrat elected since 1892

56 Woodrow Wilson

57 Tariffs: Personally appeared before Congress to present his ideas. Wanted lower tariffs to force American businesses to be under the “constant necessity to be efficient, economical, and enterprising” 1913: Underwood Tariff- reduced tariffs

58 Federal Reserve System:
Banks would keep a portion of deposits in regional reserve banks (12)- for emergencies Board of Governors: appointed by pres to control interest rates reserve banks charged other banks Indirectly controlled rates across nation Indirectly controlled money supply

59 Federal Trade Commission:
set up to investigate and monitor American business could enforce anti-trust laws (not to break up big business, but work with them to limit unfair limits on competition)

60 Clayton Antitrust Act-
Prevented price discrimination Businesses could not charge diff prices to diff customers Gave unions more power Were not unlawful, did not restrain trade Gave unions the right to exist

61 Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Prohibited children under 14 from working in factories producing goods for interstate commerce(was shot down by supreme court)

62 Adamson Act Established 8 hour workday for rail workers

63 Federal Farm Loan Board
Provided farmers with long-term loans at low interest rates

64 Failures of Progressivism:
Did nothing to help African Americans

65 Many African Americans took the Progressive spirit and worked for their own advancement:
Niagara Movement- 1905, WEB and 28 other leaders met (on Canadian side- no US hotel would host them) NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People-1909 Both groups believed the vote was essential for change “ The power of the ballot we need in sheer self-defense, else what shall save us from a second slavery” WEB Work through the courts to make changes

66 Legacy of Progressivism:
Americans began to expect more from their government. Regulate economy and solve social problems Progressives expanded democracy, and improved the lives of men, women and children. Progressivism “ended” b/c of the concerns of WWI

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