Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The New Transformer Sequel: Transportation Engineer Becomes Atmospheric Scientist Richard H. Osa, QEP* Mn/DOT – ACEC/MN Annual Consultant Conference Partnering.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The New Transformer Sequel: Transportation Engineer Becomes Atmospheric Scientist Richard H. Osa, QEP* Mn/DOT – ACEC/MN Annual Consultant Conference Partnering."— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Transformer Sequel: Transportation Engineer Becomes Atmospheric Scientist Richard H. Osa, QEP* Mn/DOT – ACEC/MN Annual Consultant Conference Partnering – Innovation – Multimodal March 1, 2011 Earle Brown Heritage Center *with technical assistance, courtesy of Tom Fidler, P.E., Bonestroo

2 Transformers… …Traditionally Tough On All Modes Of Transportation

3 Transportation Engineer Transforms Into… … Atmospheric Scientist!

4 Transportation Engineer Becomes… Civil engineer Financial analyst Public relations specialist Materials scientist Supply chain traffic cop Contracts administrator Labor negotiator Et cetera …Just wasnt enough Because:

5 TransportationPart of the Problem… While transportation makes possible our complex and comfortable lifestyle, Transportation demands almost 28% of the countrys energy most of it provided by dwindling oil supplies Transportation generates massive quantities of air pollutants: potential for localized acute health impacts o CO o NO x o PM 2.5 (and its precursors) o contributes to regional O 3 formation o over half of transportation emissions due to personal vehicles greenhouse gas emissions add to global climate change o transportation responsible for one-third of U.S. GHG emissions

6 Transportation Planning, DesignPart of the Solution… Vehicle manufacturers doing their part aerodynamics engine efficiency after a long stagnant period, even personal vehicle fleet fuel economy projected to improve in coming years

7 Transportation Planning, DesignPart of the Solution… Multi-modal options promise even greater freight transport savings sophisticated logistical management systems select optimal mode(s) & minimize deadheading

8 Transportation Planning, DesignPart of the Solution… Deliberate planning methods can reduce VMT, fuel demand, air emissions Advanced roadway designs can reduce congestion, fuel demand, and build-up of unhealthy air pollutant concentrations Advanced transportation management policies & technology can also reduce congestion with corresponding benefits

9 Todays Message: Changes Are Coming National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) NO 2 PM 2.5 O 3 CO Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Management SIP Conformity process: new challenges MOVES emissions model Hot Spot monitoring, assessment

10 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingNAAQS Atmospheric Chemistry NO + O 3 NO 2 NO x, SO 2 PM 2.5 (NO 3 -, SO 4 -2 ), haze VOC, NO x O 3, haze (sunlight)

11 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingNO 2 NO 2 This one is HOT! 1/10/2010 EPA adds new, 1-hr standard (100 ppb) to existing 53 ppb annual NAAQS May affect any combustion source with a low release height and limited buffer distance to ambient air Additional monitoring requirednear highways

12 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingNO 2 EPA is establishing new NO 2 ambient air monitoring requirements: In urban areas, monitors required near major where maximum concentrations expected Additional monitors required in large urban areas to measure the highest concentrations that occur more broadly across communities

13 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingNO 2

14 Atmospheric Chemistry I: NO x NO x is combustion byproduct atmospheric and fuel nitrogen and atmospheric oxygen under high temperature and pressure in internal combustion engine exhaust, most NO x is in the form of nitric oxide, NO In the atmosphere, NO oxidizes to NO 2 reaction rate is largely determined by atmospheric ozone (O 3 ) concentrationthe higher the O 3 concentration, the faster NO converts to NO 2 NAAQS is specific to NO 2 ; if NO has not converted to NO 2 by the time it reaches a monitor (or receptor being modeled), it doesnt count

15 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingNO 2

16 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

17 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingPM 2.5 PM 2.5 recipes: Primary PM 2.5 emissions SO 2 + O 2 = SO 4 -2 (part.) NO x + O 2 = NO 3 - (part.) EPA & states regulating both primary emissions, as well as the precursors NO x, SO 2, making PM 2.5 a triple threat

18 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingPM 2.5 Particulate Matter 9/21/2006 EPA promulgates PM 2.5 standards 35 µg/m 3, 24 hr avg, 15 µg/m 3, annual avg retains PM 10 NAAQS: 150 µg/m 3, 24 hr avg Managing secondary particles crucial to PM 2.5 attainment o constrains SO 2 and NO x emissions

19 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingPM 2.5 Already very close to natural background concentrations…especially in the western (drier) states Next NAAQS review is going to be latemaybe proposal in summer 2011; promulgation in 2012?

20 Todays Message: Changes Are Coming--Ozone O 3 Still struggling with old, old 1-hr standard in legacy non- attainment areas Making progress on the old, new (1997) 8-hr standard (85 ppb) Phase 2 implementation rule for old, new 8-hr standard being contested; resolution expected ??? New, new (2008) 8-hr standard (75 ppb) Ozone standard is coming frighteningly close to natural background concentrations Managed by controlling VOC and/or NO x emissions

21 Todays Message: Changes Are ComingCO & Lead CO 1/28/2011 EPA proposes no change to NAAQS (Hooray!!!) Additional air monitoring proposed Pb 11/12/2008 EPA reduced standard from 1.5 µg/m 3 to 0.15 µg/m 3, 24-hour average 12/14/2010 additional air monitoring required

22 Todays Message: Changes Are Coming Just because a monitor shows NAAQS compliance does not mean youre off the hook… Modeling may not be as forgiving; modeled violations may pose just as effective a barrier to a project as monitoring

23 So…Lets Look At Modeling and NO 2 Compliance Distance From Hwy Centerline (m)

24 Transportation Design to Reduce Carbon Footprint Simulation compared traffic flow, projected fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint) of traditional signalized intersections with an alternative configuration using roundabouts Exercise used the VISSIM simulation software

25 Base CaseSignalized Configuration

26

27 Alternative CaseRoundabout Pair

28

29 Transportation Design to Reduce Carbon Footprint Fuel Consumption (gal) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO 2 equivalent) 6-hrAnnual 6-hr (lb) Annual (metric tonne) Two Signalized Intersections37 53,407710 387 Two Roundabout Intersections24 34,733462 252 Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction13 18,673248 135

30 Transportation Design to Reduce Carbon Footprint

31 Questions? Discussion?

32 Questions? (if this doesnt provoke discussion...)


Download ppt "The New Transformer Sequel: Transportation Engineer Becomes Atmospheric Scientist Richard H. Osa, QEP* Mn/DOT – ACEC/MN Annual Consultant Conference Partnering."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google