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Urban America Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban America Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban America Chapter 10

2 Learning Targets Students explain the reasons for increased immigration into America Students explain problems immigrants faced and how they responded Students explain American reactions to immigration Students explain the pros/cons of urbanization and how it impacted politics Students will identify elements of the Gilded Age Students will identify responses to excesses of the Gilded Age including Reform and Populism Students explain the rise of segregation in the South

3 Immigration Immigration from Eastern and Southern Europe (Poles, Slavs, Russians, Italians, Greeks, etc.) Many were Jews What were push/pull factors? Jobs Military service Religious persecution Political freedom Class system

4 Immigration The Atlantic Voyage – steerage class
Ellis Island – New York City Health problems Insanity Criminal record Mostly European immigrants Angel Island – San Francisco Mostly Asian immigrants Mostly young, single males

5 Immigration Immigrants tended to settle in ethnic neighborhoods such as Chinatown or Little Italy Other groups settled on Great Plains - Scandinavians Why these neighborhoods? Familiar languages spoken Familiar foods and goods Native-language newspapers Churches similar Little Italy, New York

6 Immigration Harsh urban life for immigrants
Tenement living Pollution Crime Jacob Riis – exposed horrible living conditions of immigrants Everyone worked – even small children Little knowledge of American democracy

7 Immigration 1849 California Gold Rush lured Chinese immigrants
Taiping Rebellion in China caused huge suffering = migration Construction of Central Pacific Railroad required huge numbers of Chinese workers Some Japanese immigration

8 Immigration Resurgence of Nativism
Nativists were Americans who did not want immigration First targets were Irish – now Asians, Jews, and Eastern Europeans Many labor unions were anti- immigrant Nativists formed anti-immigrant associations like the American Protective Association and the Workingman’s Party of California


10 Immigration Flood of immigrants caused laws to be passed limiting their entrance A 1882 law prohibited convicts, paupers, and mentally disabled and placed a 50 cent head tax on immigrants 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited immigration from China Theodore Roosevelt’s Gentleman’s Agreement – rejected Japanese

11 Learning Targets Students explain the reasons for increased immigration into America Push and Pull factors Cheaper transportation costs Students explain problems immigrants faced and how they responded Poor living conditions Lived in ethnic neighborhoods Students explain American reactions to immigration Rise of Nativism Anti-immigration laws passed Exploitation of immigrant labor

12 The Flatiron Building, New York
Urbanization Migration of Americans to cities exploded after Civil War Immigration also swelled city populations Large populations caused cities to build up not out Skyscrapers developed due to availability of steel Led by architect Louis Sullivan The Flatiron Building, New York

13 Urbanization People lived within 1-2 miles of work
Mass transit allowed people to move out of cities and commute Mass transit types Horsecars Cable cars – San Francisco Electric trolley – Frank Sprague Elevated railroad – Chicago Subway – New York

14 Urbanization Urban Class System
High Society – lived in fashionable districts of city; houses were grand Middle Class – could afford to live in streetcar suburbs; could afford a servant Working Class – lived in dank tenements; all family members were expected to work

15 Urbanization Urban Problems
Crime, violence, fire, pollution, and disease Nativists blamed immigrants for rising crime rates Alcohol problem Pollution contaminated wells and resulted in outbreaks of disease especially cholera No garbage removal systems

16 Urbanization Urban Politics
Political machine – political group designed to gain and keep power Party Bosses – provided services to gain votes Corruption – party officials grew rich stealing from the public, fraud, and graft Tammany Hall – Famous New York Democratic political machine “Boss” Tweed – famous leader of Tammany Hall; eventually jailed for corruption

17 Learning Targets Students explain the pros/cons of urbanization and how it impacted politics Lack of land caused cities to grow “up” not out (skyscrapers) Could accommodate larger populations Mass transit allowed movement to “streetcar suburbs” More people = more pollution, crime, poorer housing, disease Cities came under control of political machines/city bosses – corruption epidemic

18 The Gilded Age Term coined by Mark Twain and Charles Warner
What does it mean? Ideal if individualism Horatio Alger Stories – “Rags to Riches” Social Darwinism – Herbert Spencer – survival of the fittest on a national level

19 The Gilded Age Gospel of Wealth – Andrew Carnegie – belief that the wealthy had the responsibility of philanthropy Popular Culture - Industrialization brought higher wages and more leisure time Saloons – outnumbered grocery stores Amusement parks – Coney Island Spectator sports – baseball, college football, invention of basketball Vaudeville (Tin Pan Alley) – variety shows; ragtime music (Scott Joplin); promoted racial stereotypes

20 Learning Targets Students will identify elements of the Gilded Age
Late 1800s Looked prosperous and wonderful on top – rise of business, increased wages and leisure time Many problems underneath – poverty, exploitation of workers Rags to Riches Social Darwinism Gospel of Wealth Growth of popular culture

21 Birth of Reform Excesses of Gilded Age caused many Americans to actively seek change Henry George Believed tax on land would make society more equal Lester Frank Ward Argued for government control of economy – that competition was wasteful

22 Birth of Reform Edward Bellamy Social Gospel
Looking Backward – futuristic book where government owned all industry and shared equally with public Socialist Social Gospel Religion-based groups seeking social reform/change Washington Gladden YMCA, Salvation Army

23 Birth of Reform Revivalism – Dwight Moody Settlement Houses
Helped organize YMCA Revivalist preacher Believed poor best helped through redemption not social services Settlement Houses Established mainly by middle-class women Provided services to poor including classes, child care, etc. Jane Addams – Hull House

24 Birth of Reform Public Education Caused by demand for skilled workers
Movement led by Horace Mann Schools crucial to Americanization of immigrant children Some parents worried children might forget cultural identities Unequal opportunities for blacks caused establishment of black schools such as Tuskegee Institute (Booker T. Washington)

25 Birth of Reform Morrill Land Grant Act Public Libraries
Government grants of land to states for agricultural and mechanical schools Greatly increased school enrollment Women’s colleges established Public Libraries Many libraries supported by Andrew Carnegie

26 Learning Targets Students will identify responses to excesses of the Gilded Age New political ideas such as Marxism and Socialism Social Gospel – mix of religion and social work Religious revivalism Settlement houses established by middle-class women Greatly increased public education Morrill Land Grant colleges Establishment of public libraries

27 Politics and Reform – Learning Targets
Students will be able to trace the reforms made to the American government in response to demands for change in the late 1800’s Students will be able to explain what populism was and how it impacted American society Is there a populist trend today? Students will be able to analyze the rise of segregation: what were the reasons behind it and what were the responses to it Are there any traces of segregation left today? What current government policies are in place today due to the history of segregation?

28 Politics and Reform Traditionally, when a president won the election, he would place his supporters in government jobs. This is called patronage, or the Spoils System President Hayes 1877 – attempted to end practice Angered Republican political machine called Stalwarts led by Sen. Conkling Conkling labeled Republican reformers Halfbreeds

29 Politics and Reform 1880 – President Garfield assassinated by insane office- seeker, Charles Guiteau 1883 Pendleton Act – civil service jobs filled using exams; government workers could not be fired for political reasons Act signed by President Chester Arthur – himself a one-time political appointee

30 Politics and Reform Election of 1884
Democrats saw chance of winning White House by nominating reformer Grover Cleveland Campaign was known for mud- slinging Mugwumps - Republicans who broke from the party to vote for Cleveland Cleveland won the election

31 Politics and Reform Growing industrialization = growing labor unrest = more strikes Strikes were often violent Many railroads negotiated lower rates for big customers (corporations) called rebates but small business/individuals paid higher rates Public clamored for government intervention SCOTUS case Wabash v. Illinois gave authority to federal government to regulate

32 Politics and Reform 1887 Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) created
Commission acted to regulate railroad rates, forbid rebates Democrats wanted lower tariffs but Republican senate blocked law

33 Union veterans of the Civil War (Grand Army of the Republic)
Politics and Reform Republicans gained presidency with election of Benjamin Harrison Republican Congress passed McKinley Tariff Tariff lowered federal revenue so budget went into deficit Congress also passed pensions for Civil War veterans which made deficit worse Union veterans of the Civil War (Grand Army of the Republic)

34 Politics and Reform The Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Congress pressured by public to act against trusts The law had no teeth – did not have any real effect on trusts People felt betrayed by both parties, especially farmers

35 Populism Populism – movement to increase political power of farmers
Crop prices dropping but prices of manufactured good rising due to tariffs Farmers felt victimized by banks Farmers felt railroad shipping rates too high – favored big corporations

36 Populism Greenback controversy – US government printed paper money that could not be exchanged for gold/silver – caused inflation (decline in the value of money and rise in prices) US stopped printing greenbacks but also stopped making silver coins – caused drop in money supply Crime of ‘73 – decision to stop minting silver coins Deflation – value of money increases along with decrease in prices

37 Populism Deflation hit farmers hard
Farmers had to borrow money for seed and equipment – interest rates rose causing rise in farmers’ debt Banks wanted their money but prices for crops falling Farmers demanded the minting of silver coins to increase money supply

38 Populism Farmers needed a more powerful political voice
The Grange (Patrons of Husbandry) – founded by Oliver Kelly, national farm organization Grangers pressured government to regulate railroad rates, wanted the printing of more greenbacks Grangers formed cooperatives – marketing organizations that benefitted the farmer members Pooled crops and kept them out of market to regulate prices Could negotiate better shipping, seed, and equipment prices

39 Populism The Granges failed to improve farmers’ conditions: people too suspicious of paper money, banks and railroads equated granges with unions Framers also saw drop in respect as more people began living in towns / cities Use of derogatory terms like “redneck” and “hayseed” for farmers increased

40 Populism The Farmer’s Alliance
Established in Lampasas County, TX, 1877 Organized farmers in West, Mid- West, and South Organized large cooperatives called exchanges – did better than the Grange

41 Populism The People’s Party Alliance exchanges eventually failed
Alliance members formed the People’s Party aka the Populists Alliance leaders shied away from third party – wanted Democrats to take on Alliance platform (so South would remain Democratic)

42 Populism Populist Party Nominated James Weaver for president 1892
Wanted silver/gold ratio 16-1 Federal ownership of railroads Graduated income tax 8-hour workday Immigration restriction Proposed laws to appeal to urban laborers Had ties to Knights of Labor

43 Populism Election of 1896 Republican nominee – William McKinley
Democrat and Populist nominee – William Jennings Bryan Republicans backed gold / Democrats supported silver Bryan waged energetic campaign, made 600 speeches in 14 weeks McKinley had the “Front Porch” campaign Republicans blamed Democrats for crisis of ’93 McKinley had backing of businesses – won the election

44 Klondike Gold Rush 1896 – Gold discovered in Yukon Territory of Canada
Similar conditions to that of earlier gold rushes It did Develop lower Alaska Poured millions into nation’s money supply Helped ease financial distress of farmers US established gold-based currency

45 Rise of Segregation - Learning Targets
Students explain the different ways in which whites sought to maintain control over blacks in the South Students explain the various ways blacks resisted white attempts at political, social, and economic control

46 Rise of Segregation After slavery, most blacks in South were sharecroppers – landless farmers who paid large portions of crops for rent, food, seed, tools, etc. 1879 – Benjamin Singleton led migration of blacks from South to Kansas to escape near- slavery conditions Migrants called “Exodusters”

47 Rise of Segregation Many blacks who remained in South joined the Farmer’s Alliance Blacks formed The Colored Farmers National Alliance – hoped to challenge Democratic Party’s power in South Democrats feared poor whites would join with blacks Democrats used racism to keep whites in line Democrats kept many blacks from voting

48 Rise of Segregation Voting for blacks was guaranteed by the 15th Amendment States used qualifications like property requirements, literacy tests, and the poll tax to keep blacks from voting Voting numbers dropped drastically Poor whites were also disenfranchised as they often supported Populist Party Other poor whites could vote due to grandfather clause

49 Rise of Segregation Segregation in many parts of US but legal in South
Laws enforcing segregation called Jim Crow laws SCOTUS overturned Civil Rights Act of 1875 – encouraged Southern states to pass laws making segregation even more repressive Plessy v. Ferguson – case endorsed legal doctrine of “Separate but Equal”

50 Rise of Segregation Violence against blacks continued into the twentieth century Lynching – hanging of people without trial by mobs 80% of lynchings occurred in South; 70% of victims were black Outraged black women, Ida B. Wells & Mary Church Terrell led crusade against lynching. Efforts led to decrease in lynching in early 1900’s Ida B. Wells

51 Rise of Segregation Booker T. Washington – argued blacks better off if they spent their energy making themselves better rather than fighting racism Atlanta Compromise – address by Washington asked blacks to postpone fight for civil rights and pull themselves up W. E. B. DuBois – rejected accommodation of Washington; urged blacks to demand their rights; helped found NAACP W. E. B. DuBois

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