Presentation on theme: "Russia Chapter 8. A Vast Land: Climate & Geography of Russia Chapter 8 Section 1."— Presentation transcript:
Russia Chapter 8
A Vast Land: Climate & Geography of Russia Chapter 8 Section 1
Notes Outline I.A Vast Expanse II.Bodies of Water III.Climate IV.One Country, Two Continents V.North European Plain: European Russia VI.Siberia: Asian Russia VII.Kamchatka Peninsula
I. A Vast Expanse Worlds largest country Almost twice size of U.S. Eurasian country: Russia lies on both Europe & Asia Borders 14 countries 11 time zones
II. Bodies of Water North: Arctic Ocean East: Pacific Ocean Caspian Sea & Black Sea form natural borders between southwestern Russia & Western Europe –Caspian Sea: size of CA/largest inland saltwater body in the world
Russia Kazakhstan Turkmenistan Iran Azerbaijan
Lake Baikal in Siberia is worlds largest freshwater lake holding 20% of worlds unfrozen freshwater. (oldest lake in the world)
The Volga River is the longest river in Europe & a vital transportation route.
III. Climate Four climate zones: steppe, humid continental, sub arctic & tundra Western Russia: summers are warm/rainy; winters are cold/snowy Eastern Russia: summers are short/cool; winters are long/snowy Most ports are closed parts of the year due to ice
Europe or Asia? Ural Mountains North European Plain Siberia
IV. One country, Two continents Russia lies on two continents Ural Mountains act as a separation between two continents: –Europe –Asia
Europe Asia Ural Mountains
North European Plain
V. North European Plain: European Russia 75% of Russias population lives here Mild climate Majority of Russias industry & agriculture Good farmland (the steppe) Caucasus Mountains form southern border with Georgia & Azerbaijan
Russia Kazakhstan Turkmenistan Iran Azerbaijan Caucasus Mountains
Siberia Ural Mountains North European Plain Siberia
VI. Siberia: Asian Russia Located east of Ural Mountains One of worlds coldest climate Northern Siberia: Tundra & permafrost cover 40% of Russia; taiga in the south –Fishing, hunting seals & walruses, herding reindeer –Few people Southern Siberia: Plains, plateaus & mountains –Home to Siberian Tiger (endangered), bear, reindeer, lynx, wolf, elk, etc.
Endangered Siberian Tiger
VII. Kamchatka Peninsula Mountainous Over 120 volcanoes (20 active) Part of Ring of Fire (zone of active volcanoes that forms the western, northern, and eastern edges of Pacific)
Kronotsky volcano, an 11,975-foot volcanic peak.
A Troubled History Chapter 8 Section 2
8.2 Outline I.Early Russia I.Rise of the Czars II.The Soviet Era a)Russian Revolution b)Growth of Soviet Power c)USSR under Stalin d)The Cold War e)Collapse of the Soviet Union
I. Early Russia A. Rise of the Czars Czar :Russian ruler with total control over government Czars ruled Russia from 1500s Expanded Russias borders (page 246) Westernized Russia by encouraging industrialization –Industrialization: economy relies on manufacturing (rather than farming) Peter the Great ( )
St. Petersburg: Venice of the North Served as capital of Russia until 1917 when it was moved to Moscow
II. The Soviet Era A. The Russian Revolution 1914 WWI affects all of Europe food shortages blamed on Czar Vladimir Lenin leads political revolution to overthrow Czar Nicholas II *LAST CZAR* Lenin sets up a Communist state Communist state: strong government control of economy & society.
The 300-year-old Romanov dynasty ended on June 17, 1918 when the entire royal family was murdered. Nicholas II was the last czar of Russia.
II. The Soviet Era (continued) B. Growth of Soviet Power 1. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, called USSR 2. Formed in republics (including Russia)
Yellow area: Russia/Green areas: former Soviet Union
C. USSR Under Stalin 1. Lenin dies in 1924 & Joseph Stalin becomes leader until after WWII 2. Government takes complete control of economy: Command /Communist Economy 3. Those who opposed/disagreed with Stalin sent to prison camps in Siberia II. The Soviet Era (continued)
D. The Cold War: late 1980s 1. After WWII, Stalin setup communist governments in neighboring countries 2. These became satellite nations controlled by USSR-said to be behind an iron curtain. 3. US & USSR engage in competition for world influence without any actual fighting (ex. Space Race) 4. Lack of competition in economy caused government-owned factories to be inefficient & produce poor-quality goods 5. Government spent too much money on military causing scarcity (not enough) of food 6. Many different ethnic groups resent/dislike Russian control of government II. The Soviet Era (continued)
E. Collapse of the Soviet Union 1. Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader in Introduces changes such as perestroika & glasnost to help economy: –Perestroika: restructuring; loosened government control of economy –Glasnost: openness; people allowed to speak freely II. The Soviet Era (continued)
E. Collapse of the Soviet Union 1. Gorbachevs reforms only cause more distrust of communist government 2. Late 1980s: protests erupt in satellite nations 3. By 1991 USSR collapses 4. Russia is largest & most powerful of all former USSR republics II. The Soviet Era (continued)