6 II. Bodies of Water North: Arctic Ocean East: Pacific Ocean Caspian Sea & Black Sea form natural borders between southwestern Russia & Western EuropeCaspian Sea: size of CA/largest inland saltwater body in the world
11 III. ClimateFour climate zones: steppe, humid continental, sub arctic & tundraWestern Russia: summers are warm/rainy; winters are cold/snowyEastern Russia: summers are short/cool; winters are long/snowyMost ports are closed parts of the year due to ice
17 V. North European Plain: European Russia 75% of Russia’s population lives hereMild climateMajority of Russia’s industry & agricultureGood farmland (the steppe)Caucasus Mountains form southern border with Georgia & Azerbaijan
21 SiberiaUral MountainsSiberiaNorth European Plain
22 VI. Siberia: Asian Russia Located east of Ural MountainsOne of world’s coldest climateNorthern Siberia: Tundra & permafrost cover 40% of Russia; taiga in the southFishing, hunting seals & walruses, herding reindeerFew peopleSouthern Siberia: Plains, plateaus & mountainsHome to Siberian Tiger (endangered), bear, reindeer, lynx, wolf, elk, etc.
29 8.2 Outline Early Russia The Soviet Era Rise of the Czars Russian RevolutionGrowth of Soviet PowerUSSR under StalinThe Cold WarCollapse of the Soviet Union
30 I. Early Russia A. Rise of the Czars Czar :Russian ruler with total control over governmentCzars ruled Russia from 1500s-1917Expanded Russia’s borders (page 246)Westernized Russia by encouraging industrializationIndustrialization: economy relies on manufacturing (rather than farming)Peter the Great ( )
31 St. Petersburg: “Venice of the North” Served as capital of Russia until 1917 when it was moved to Moscow
33 II. The Soviet Era A. The Russian Revolution 1914 WWI affects all of Europefood shortages blamed on CzarVladimir Lenin leads political revolution to overthrow Czar Nicholas II *LAST CZAR*Lenin sets up a Communist stateCommunist state: strong government control of economy & society.
34 The 300-year-old Romanov dynasty ended on June 17, 1918 when the entire royal family was murdered. Nicholas II was the last czar of Russia.
35 II. The Soviet Era (continued) B. Growth of Soviet Power1. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, called USSR2. Formed in 19223. 15 republics (including Russia)
36 Yellow area: Russia/Green areas: former Soviet Union
37 II. The Soviet Era (continued) C. USSR Under Stalin1. Lenin dies in 1924 & Joseph Stalin becomes leader until after WWII2. Government takes complete control of economy: Command /Communist Economy3. Those who opposed/disagreed with Stalin sent to prison camps in Siberia
38 II. The Soviet Era (continued) D. The Cold War: late 1980s1. After WWII, Stalin setup communist governments in neighboring countries2. These became satellite nations controlled by USSR-said to be behind an “iron curtain.”3. US & USSR engage in competition for world influence without any actual fighting (ex. Space Race)4. Lack of competition in economy caused government-owned factories to be inefficient & produce poor-quality goods5. Government spent too much money on military causing scarcity (not enough) of food6. Many different ethnic groups resent/dislike Russian control of government
39 II. The Soviet Era (continued) E. Collapse of the Soviet Union1. Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader in 19852. Introduces changes such as perestroika & glasnost to help economy:Perestroika: “restructuring”; loosened government control of economyGlasnost: “openness”; people allowed to speak freely
40 II. The Soviet Era (continued) E. Collapse of the Soviet Union1. Gorbachev’s reforms only cause more distrust of communist government2. Late 1980s: protests erupt in satellite nations3. By 1991 USSR collapses4. Russia is largest & most powerful of all former USSR republics
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