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Russia Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Russia Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Russia Chapter 8

2 A Vast Land: Climate & Geography of Russia
Chapter 8 Section 1

3 Notes Outline A Vast Expanse Bodies of Water Climate
One Country, Two Continents North European Plain: European Russia Siberia: Asian Russia Kamchatka Peninsula

4 I. A Vast Expanse World’s largest country Almost twice size of U.S.
“Eurasian” country: Russia lies on both Europe & Asia Borders 14 countries 11 time zones


6 II. Bodies of Water North: Arctic Ocean East: Pacific Ocean
Caspian Sea & Black Sea form natural borders between southwestern Russia & Western Europe Caspian Sea: size of CA/largest inland saltwater body in the world

7 Russia Kazakhstan Turkmenistan Azerbaijan Iran

8 Lake Baikal in Siberia is world’s largest freshwater lake holding 20% of world’s unfrozen freshwater. (oldest lake in the world)

9 The Volga River is the longest river in Europe & a vital transportation route.


11 III. Climate Four climate zones: steppe, humid continental, sub arctic & tundra Western Russia: summers are warm/rainy; winters are cold/snowy Eastern Russia: summers are short/cool; winters are long/snowy Most ports are closed parts of the year due to ice

12 Climate map

13 Europe or Asia? Ural Mountains Siberia North European Plain

14 IV. One country, Two continents
Russia lies on two continents Ural Mountains act as a separation between two continents: Europe Asia

15 Europe Asia Ural Mountains

16 Ural Mountains North European Plain

17 V. North European Plain: European Russia
75% of Russia’s population lives here Mild climate Majority of Russia’s industry & agriculture Good farmland (the steppe) Caucasus Mountains form southern border with Georgia & Azerbaijan

18 Caucasus Mountains

19 Russia Kazakhstan Caucasus Mountains Turkmenistan Azerbaijan Iran

20 Caucasus Mountains

21 Siberia Ural Mountains Siberia North European Plain

22 VI. Siberia: Asian Russia
Located east of Ural Mountains One of world’s coldest climate Northern Siberia: Tundra & permafrost cover 40% of Russia; taiga in the south Fishing, hunting seals & walruses, herding reindeer Few people Southern Siberia: Plains, plateaus & mountains Home to Siberian Tiger (endangered), bear, reindeer, lynx, wolf, elk, etc.

23 Endangered Siberian Tiger

24 Kamchatka Peninsula


26 VII. Kamchatka Peninsula
Mountainous Over 120 volcanoes (20 active) Part of “Ring of Fire” (zone of active volcanoes that forms the western, northern, and eastern edges of Pacific)

27 Kronotsky volcano, an 11,975-foot volcanic peak.

28 A Troubled History Chapter 8 Section 2

29 8.2 Outline Early Russia The Soviet Era Rise of the Czars
Russian Revolution Growth of Soviet Power USSR under Stalin The Cold War Collapse of the Soviet Union

30 I. Early Russia A. Rise of the Czars
Czar :Russian ruler with total control over government Czars ruled Russia from 1500s-1917 Expanded Russia’s borders (page 246) Westernized Russia by encouraging industrialization Industrialization: economy relies on manufacturing (rather than farming) Peter the Great ( )

31 St. Petersburg: “Venice of the North”
Served as capital of Russia until 1917 when it was moved to Moscow


33 II. The Soviet Era A. The Russian Revolution
1914 WWI affects all of Europe food shortages blamed on Czar Vladimir Lenin leads political revolution to overthrow Czar Nicholas II *LAST CZAR* Lenin sets up a Communist state Communist state: strong government control of economy & society.

34 The 300-year-old Romanov dynasty ended on June 17, 1918 when the entire royal family was murdered. Nicholas II was the last czar of Russia.

35 II. The Soviet Era (continued)
B. Growth of Soviet Power 1. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, called USSR 2. Formed in 1922 3. 15 republics (including Russia)

36 Yellow area: Russia/Green areas: former Soviet Union

37 II. The Soviet Era (continued)
C. USSR Under Stalin 1. Lenin dies in 1924 & Joseph Stalin becomes leader until after WWII 2. Government takes complete control of economy: Command /Communist Economy 3. Those who opposed/disagreed with Stalin sent to prison camps in Siberia

38 II. The Soviet Era (continued)
D. The Cold War: late 1980s 1. After WWII, Stalin setup communist governments in neighboring countries 2. These became satellite nations controlled by USSR-said to be behind an “iron curtain.” 3. US & USSR engage in competition for world influence without any actual fighting (ex. Space Race) 4. Lack of competition in economy caused government-owned factories to be inefficient & produce poor-quality goods 5. Government spent too much money on military causing scarcity (not enough) of food 6. Many different ethnic groups resent/dislike Russian control of government

39 II. The Soviet Era (continued)
E. Collapse of the Soviet Union 1. Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader in 1985 2. Introduces changes such as perestroika & glasnost to help economy: Perestroika: “restructuring”; loosened government control of economy Glasnost: “openness”; people allowed to speak freely

40 II. The Soviet Era (continued)
E. Collapse of the Soviet Union 1. Gorbachev’s reforms only cause more distrust of communist government 2. Late 1980s: protests erupt in satellite nations 3. By 1991 USSR collapses 4. Russia is largest & most powerful of all former USSR republics

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