Presentation on theme: "From: American Waterfowl by Phillips and Lincoln Houghton Mifflin Company 1930."— Presentation transcript:
from: American Waterfowl by Phillips and Lincoln Houghton Mifflin Company 1930
Screening-level study to determine whether wild birds in the Tri-State Mining District are suffering from metal poisoning related to past mining. Part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment procedure Screening-level, to determine if additional work justified Focused on injury to birds (not meant to investigate soil contamination, exposure, or other related issues) To include several species and sites in the three states
Contributors (FWS and USGS) Administered through Karen Cathey of the Southwest region of the FWS. Suzanne Dudding helped through the Tulsa office Jim Dwyer, Missouri, was the case manager John Miesner, Kansas – planning, organizing and conducting, field work, lent his retriever Susan Finger, NRDA coordinator for Geological Survey Lou Sileo, pathologist at the National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI
Contributors, cont. BIA – John Dalgarn, Sam Beets, Mike Longan – steadfast host and guide, generous with his time and took care of our needs, finding and getting to sites David Mosby (MO Dept. Nat. Res.) and Leo Henning (KS Dept. Health and Environ.) helped in selecting sites John Sparkman, executive director of the Picher Housing Authority, located some birds critical to the result Rafael Mateo, Spanish veterinarian and professor, specialist in diagnosing lead poisoning in birds
Birds collected from the Tri-State Mining District and reference sites. From Tri-State Mining District From Reference sites Waterfowl Canada goose (Branta canadensis) 3 Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) 8 5 Common pintail (Anas acuta) 2 Green-winged teal (Anas crecca) 1 Ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris) 2 Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) 1 Bobwhite and doves Common bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) 7 Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) 12 4 Songbirds Bank swallow (Riparia riparia) 9 7 Rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) 6 Brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) 1 American robin (Turdus migratorius) 10 6 Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) 8 8 Birds from District collected by Bureau of Indian Affairs Waterfowl Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) 3
Collection sites () of wild birds
Methods Captured birds were euthanized Blood sample taken, a portion saved for chemical analysis, a portion frozen in liquid nitrogen for measuring ALAD activity Waterfowl examined at necropsy, other birds dissected, tissues saved for chemical analysis, portion put in formalin for histopathology Examined waterfowl gizzards for shot (1 steel shot found)
Evaluating Injury Concentrations of metals in tissues, ppm, (dry weight) Histopathology of liver, kidney, pancreas (waterfowl, bobwhite), lungs (swallows) Activity of the enzyme ALAD in blood, a measure of injury from lead
Cadmium in wild birds from the District Renal cadmium concentrations in birds from the District tended to be higher than those in reference birds. (Differences for cardinals, robins and swallows were statistically significant.) We failed to find the histopathological lesions associated with cadmium poisoning in kidneys of the birds examined.
Mean concentrations of Pb in tissues of an assessment population of birds from the Tri-State Mining District (Tri) and reference (ref.) sites (2001). ______________________________________________________ liver kidney Species [sample size] mg of Pb/kg, dry wt ___________________________mean SD_____mean SD_ Waterfowl Tri-State  4.1* (9.6) 11** (14) Ref.  0.57 (0.36) 0.86 (0.42) Bobwhite Tri-State  0.16 (0.12) 2.5 (1.4) Doves Tri-State  1.2 (0.75) 7.2 (5.5) Ref.  1.3 (1.0) 7.0 (4.0) Swallows Tri-State  4.2** (3.2) 6.2** (4.5) Ref.  <0.02 (0.014) (0.032) Robins Tri-State  9.3 (7.2) 20* (12) Ref.  5.1 (3.8) 8.9 (7.1) Cardinals Tri-State  4.7** (4.3) 9.4** (7.5) Ref.  0.48 (0.59) 0.41 (0.40) _______________________________________________________
Activity of the lead-sensitive enzyme ALAD in blood of birds collected from the Tri-State Mining District and from reference sites (2001). ________________________________________________________ Birds ALAD Activity - Mean (S. D.) Relative Tri-State Reference sites activity _______________________________________________________ Robins 65 (52) 188 (106) 35%* Cardinals 137 (67) 343 (59) 40%* Waterfowl 89 (63) 217 (63) 41%* Bobwhite 166 (48) 297 (69) 56%* Doves 167 (98) 133 (37) 126% _______________________________________________________ * means significant at p < 0.05 by Mann-Whitney U test
Highest concentrations of Pb in tissues of songbirds from the _______________Tri-State Mining District (2001)_________________ mg Pb/kg, dry weight ALAD Liver Kidney Blood activity Wild from Tri-State Mining District Robin % Robin % Cardinal % Brown thrasher % Swallow Swallow % quantiles of lethally dosed songbirds Blackbirds Cowbirds Grackle ______________________________________________________
Mean concentrations of Zn in tissues of an assessment population of birds from the Tri-State Mining District (Tri) and reference (ref.) sites (2001). ______________________________________________________ liver kidney Species [sample size] mg of Zn/kg, dry wt ___________________________mean SD_____mean SD_ Waterfowl Tri-State  440** (710) 210* (240) Ref.  93 (30) 80 (8.3) Doves Tri-State  100 (34) 140 (40) Ref. ) 82 (17) 99 (11) Swallows Tri-State ) 140 (80) 86 (22) Ref. ) 110 (22) 79 (5.2) Robins Tri-State ) 92 (31) 110** (9.9) Ref. ) 120 (16) 88 (5.7) Cardinals Tri-State ) 86 (13) 100** (14) Ref. ) 100* (15) 81 (3.9) _______________________________________________________
Zinc in 4 waterfowl from the District diagnosed with pancreatitis Concentration in tissue Bird (mg/kg, dry weight) Liver Kidney Pancreas Goose Goose Goose Mallard
Mallards that appeared weak collected from Spring River by the BIA Mallard Mallard Mallard Reference
Trumpeter swan observed on mill pond, east of Picher, February, 2003
Conclusions about injury from lead No birds examined had pathological lesions that could be attributed unequivocally to lead. Assessment populations of robins, cardinals and waterfowl are suffering sublethal physiological toxic effects (ALAD) from lead poisoning. Two ducks and several songbirds had tissue concentrations of lead that have been associated with more severe injury.
Conclusions about injury from zinc Songbirds and upland game birds did not show evidence of zinc poisoning. Three Canada geese, a mallard and a trumpeter swan collected from the District had a rare pancreatic lesion known to be associated with zinc poisoning in birds. All had tissue concentrations consistent with zinc poisoning. Two of the zinc-poisoned waterfowl were moribund when collected. The concentrations of zinc in at least some parts of the District are high enough to kill waterfowl.