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EDPS 540 – Spring 2006 Rebecca L. Mann History of Gifted Education and Theories of Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "EDPS 540 – Spring 2006 Rebecca L. Mann History of Gifted Education and Theories of Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 EDPS 540 – Spring 2006 Rebecca L. Mann rlmann@purdue.edu History of Gifted Education and Theories of Intelligence

2 Gifted depends on the values of the culture: Primitive Civilizations Survival of the fittest Ancient Civilizations Greeks Sparta - valued military skills Athens - valued academics for upper class Romans - valued architecture, engineering, law Chinese - valued multiple talents Japanese - educated children based on social class

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4 Pre-Renaissance Europe Church as keeper of knowledge Renaissance Europe valued art, literature, architecture

5 Sir Francis Galton - 1822-1911 Anthromopetric Lab Measured physical and sensory capacities Intelligence was fixed, in-bred, inherited

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7 Cesare Lombroso -1836 - 1909 Genius is a symptom of hereditary degeneration Alfred Binet - 1857-1911 Contributed notion of mental age First standardized IQ test The scale, properly speaking, does not present the measure of intelligence because intellectual qualities are not superposable and therefore they cant be measured as linear surface are measured. 1904

8 Early America Services for gifted education sparse Occasional programs in the form of tracking, telescoping, acceleration, grade-skipping, and special schools By 1920, two-thirds of major U.S. cities had gifted programs

9 1920s and 1930s and 1940s Declining programs Equity became focus, interest in gifted waned Great Depression World War II

10 Charles Spearman - 1863 - 1945 Two factor theory of intelligence g = general factor and s = specific ability L.L. Thurstone - 1887 - 1955 Intelligence is really several primary mental abilities Seven relatively different abilities Factor analyzed intelligence and perception tests

11 Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky - 1896-1934 Modern Constructivism: Sociocultural Theory Humans have ability to alter their environment Zone of Proximal Development Amount of learning possible when given instruction

12 Leta Hollingworth - 1886 - 1936 Nuturant Mother of gifted education Highlighted social and emotional needs of gifted Wrote first college text on gifted, taught first course Established gifted programs in New York City

13 Lewis Terman - 1877-1956 Father of gifted education movement Supervised modification of Binet- Simon test First longitudinal study of gifted children Study began in 1922, continued by others after his death Students were physically, socially and psychologically healthier than the average

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15 1957 - Sputnik Effect Resurgence of gifted education Identification, ability grouping, acceleration, telescoping 1963 - Death of JFK LBJs Great Society Special Education moved to the forefront, gifted lagged

16 Jean Piaget - 1896 - 1980 Four stages of mental growth in children Qualitative not quantitative Took Binet-Simon and reclassified it Intelligence is multifacted Developed tests for children and adults (WISC & WAIS) David Weschler - 1896 - 1981

17 J. P. Guilford - 1897 - 1988 Three dimensional Structure of the Intellect Intelligence too complicated to be summed up in one number or g factor

18 Raymond Cattell - 1905 - 1998 Fluid Intelligence : Intelligence which allows us to learn new things, regardless of past experience. (Innate Intelligence) Crystallized Intelligence : Ability to solve problems based upon previous experience.

19 1972 - Marland Report Resurgence with Federal definition of giftedness 1988 - Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act 1990 - lost federal funding 1993 - funding restored

20 Joseph Renzulli - 1936 - Three ring model of giftedness Broadened concept Multiple criteria Schoolwide Enrichment Model

21 WHAT MAKES GIFTEDNESS? Above Average Ability Task Commitment Creativity U A C I C TP

22 Howard Gardner - 1943 - Theory of Multiple Intelligences Intelligence is multifacted Not designed as an educational prescription Linguistic Logical-mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic

23 Robert Sternberg - 1949 - Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence Based on relationship between intelligence, environment, the external and internal world First to include creativity and practical knowledge

24 Sternbergs Theory of Intelligence Sternberg believes that intelligence is comprised of three separate, though interrelated, abilities:


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