3 Why test? School effectiveness Determine what students know and can do Compare student achievement to achievement of similar studentsCompare student ability level and achievement
4 Norm vs. Criterion Referenced Norm referencedComparing a person's score against the scores of a similar group who have taken the same exam, called the "norming group."ExamplesCalifornia Achievement Test (CAT)Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) - "Terra Nova“Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS)Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT)WISCStanford-BinetBell Curve – all students cannot be above average!
5 Norm vs. Criterion Referenced Measure how well a person has learned a specific body of knowledge and skillsExamplesISTEP and most state examsITBS and Terra NovaDriver’s License testContent area placement exam (Algebra placement test)Do not compare student to student
6 … THIS WEEK WE TOOK A TEST TO SEE IF WE’RE READY FOR THE TEST THAT TESTS OUR TEST SKILLS… … Wait until KINDERGARTEN
7 Ability vs. Achievement Ability TestMeasure of cognitive abilityChild’s ability to learnAchievement TestMeasure of what an individual has learnedThere may be a discrepancy between ability and achievement scoresUnderachievementLearning Disability
8 Individual vs. Group Ability Tests Individual intelligence tests are considered the most accurate measure of intelligenceWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III),Stanford Binet (SB-5)Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) cognitiveIndividual IQ tests must be given by a school or counseling psychologist.
9 Individual vs. Group Ability Tests Group intelligence tests are commonly used as screening measuresCommon group intelligence testsOtis-Lennon School Ability Test - OLSATCognitive Abilities Test – CogATIQ scores are not given on group tests
10 Group Achievement Tests Criterion-referencedTypically on grade level content, therefore difficult to know the level of mastery for a gifted childGrade-level achievement tests are only a measure of basic skillsYou cannot compare standard scores on achievement tests to IQ scores.
15 From Get Off My Brain, by Randy McCutcheon, illustrated by Pete Wagner
16 Types of Scores Raw Percentile Ranks Grade Equivalent Scores Standard Scale Scores
17 Raw Score The number of items a student answers correctly Allow students to be ranked, but they do not allow you to compare students
18 Percentile RankA percentile rank indicates the percentage of students in the same age or grade group whose scores fall below the score obtained by a particular student.99 is the highest percentile rank possible.50 is considered averageDeals with percentage of persons not percentage of items
19 Grade Equivalent Score Most misinterpreted test scoreIf a 4th grader received a 7th grade equivalent score on a 4th grade reading achievement test, it DOES NOT mean the child is ready for 7th grade material. It means the child reads 4th grade material as well as the average 7th grader reads 4th grade material.What is the test assessing???
20 Age Equivalent Score Frequently misinterpreted If a 10 year old received a 15 year old age equivalent score on a 4th grade reading achievement test, it DOES NOT mean the child is ready to tackle 10th grade material. It means the child reads material intended for 10 year olds as well as the average 15 year old reads it.
21 StanineStanine is short for standard nine. The name comes from the fact that stanine scores range from a low of 1 to a high of 9. For instance, a stanine score of1, 2, or 3 is below average4, 5, or 6 is average7, 8, or 9 is above averageThe stanine scale is a normalized standard score scale consisting of nine broad levels designated by the numbers one through nine.Stanines are provided for both age and grade groups.
22 Standard Age Score Scale scores allow comparison of students Raw Scores are converted to SAS based on chronological ageUsed for interpretation purposesScale scores allow comparison of studentsSomewhat akin to an IQ scoreUses means and standard deviationMean = 100
24 Standard scores 130 and above Very Superior 120-129 Superior High AverageAverage80-89 Low Average70-79 Borderline69 and below Impaired (Mentally Retarded range)
25 Relationship Between CogAT Scores Stanine123456789Percentile Rank1-45-1112-2324-4041-5960-7677-8889-9596-99SAS708090100110120130Standard Deviation-2+2
26 Standard Measure of Error The range inside which an individual subject's future scores are expected to fall, based on her current scoreThe score +/- the standard measure of error is the estimated range in which the actual score lies130 +/- 5 means that the child’s true score is somewhere between 125 and 135
27 Confidence Interval Using the standard measure of error A range of values that indicates where the true score is likely to fallOften expressed in 68%, 90%, or 95%Such as: We can say with 68% confidence that a student’s true score is within this range.The higher the confidence (95 instead of 68), the wider the range of scores