2 Object of the preposition Noun FunctionsDirect objectIndirect objectPredicate nominativeAppositiveNoun of direct addressSubjectObject of the preposition
3 Direct Object receives the action of the verb noun or pronoun that follows the action verbunderlined and coded with a circle around it and D.O. above itEXAMPLE: The chair scraped the floor.The chair is the subject, scraped is the action verb, and floor is the direct object.Scraped what ? Answer: floorD.O.
4 Indirect Object tells to whom or for whom the action is done noun or pronoun that is between the action verb and the direct object (can’t have an indirect object without a direct object)underlined and coded with a box around it and I.O. above itEXAMPLE: Susan gave Bob a gift.Susan is the subject, gave is the action verb, gift is the direct object, and Bob is the indirect object.Gave what (gift) to whom ? Answer: BobI.O.D.O.
5 Predicate Nominativenoun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subjectunderlined and coded with a P.N. above itExamples: Mrs. Jones is the principal.It was a forest.His shoes are cleats.P.N.P.N.P.N.
6 Appositiveword or phrase that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that comes right before itunderlined and coded with a circle around it and APP above itExample:Thomas Edison, an American inventor, isresponsible for many patents.APP
7 Noun of Direct Address names the person or group being spoken to underlined and coded with NDA above itExample:Are you sure that is the rightanswer, John?NDA
8 Subject noun or pronoun that the sentence is about underlined and coded with S above itExamples:Joshua gathered his toys.Green men will not invade Earth!SS
9 Object of the Preposition noun or pronoun that follows the prepositionunderlined and coded with OP above it and close the parentheses after itExample:Ronald hobbled down the streetbecause he twisted his ankle gettingout of the car.OPOP
10 Possessive noun/pronoun Other FunctionsPredicate adjectiveInfinitivePossessive noun/pronounClauses
11 Predicate Adjectiveadjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subjectcoded like an adjective and with P.A. above itExample:His shoes are incredibly comfortable.adj.P.A.
12 Infinitiveto plus a verb (to eat, to sleep) that can act as an adjective, adverb, or nouncoded with parentheses around it and with its function as an adjective, adverb, or nounExample:Martians might use flying saucersto invade Earth.He wants to start right away.adv.D.O.
13 Possessive Noun/Pronoun noun or pronoun that shows ownership of another noun or pronouncoded like an adjectiveExamples:Her cheeks were so red!Is that Angela’s sweater?adj.adj.
14 are dependent (cannot stand alone) Clausesare dependent (cannot stand alone)can be noun, adjective, or adverb clauseswhen building sentences with clauses, each clause only needs one card (n, adj, adv)
15 Noun Clauses usually begin with the following words: that, how, when, where, whether, why, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever, which, whichevercan serve as a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, or predicate nominativecoded with an underline under entire clauseExample:The director determined who would design the set.A love of theater is what motivates her.
16 Adjective Clauses usually begin with a relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, that, whichtell which one, what kind, or how many, and describe nouns or pronounscoded with parentheses around it and like an adjectiveExample:The gear that a climber brings is importantto his success.adj.
17 Adverb Clauses usually begin with a subordinating conjunction: if, because, before, than, as, even though, so that, while, where, when, as if, sincetell where, when, why, how, to what extent, and under what conditionscoded with parentheses around it and like an adverbExample:Because the trails were slippery, they were cautious.adv.