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Chapter 5: Creating the Constitution

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1 Chapter 5: Creating the Constitution

2 5.1 The Constitutional Convention
Delegates from 12 of the colonies meet in Philadelphia in 1787 George Washington is chosen as President of the convention

3 Meet the framers Intelligent Well-respected College-educated Wealthy
Long record of public service Average age was only 42 years old!

4 The Convention Rules All discussions must be kept secret. . .
No one could take notes home from the meetings All debates would take place inside the State House (Independence Hall) Each state had one vote Met six days a week from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM

5 The Virginia Plan Proposed by James Madison Strong national gov’t
Legislative, executive & judicial branches Representation in the legislature would be based on population Favored by the larger states

6 The New Jersey Plan Proposed by William Paterson
Executive, legislative and judicial branches Unicameral Congress based on equal representation Favored by the smaller states

7 The Connecticut Compromise
Also known as the “Great Compromise” Proposed by Roger Sherman Bicameral legislature -House of Representatives based on population -Senate based on equal representation

8 The Three-Fifths Compromise
Should slaves be counted in the population? Slaves were considered property Decided each slave would count as 3/5 of a person

9 Strengths of the Constitution
A stronger national gov’t A bicameral legislature Established executive and judicial branches Congress has the power to tax Nat’l gov’t can regulate trade between the states Power is shared between the nat’l gov’t and the states

10 The Signing of the Constitution
Framers agreed that a bill of rights was not necessary Constitution was signed on September 17, 1787

11 5.2 The Struggle for Ratification
Constitution had to be ratified (or approved) by at least 9 of the 13 colonies Each state held a convention to approve the Constitution so that the people could debate it

12 The Federalists Led by James Madison, Ben Franklin & George Washington
Supported the new Constitution Believed in a strong national gov’t Supported the separation of powers Established the checks and balances system

13 The Anti-Federalists Led by Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry & John Hancock Opposed the Constitution Central gov’t would be too distant from the local concerns Feared a strong central gov’t Constitution lacked a bill of rights

14 The Anti-Federalists Continued. . .
Felt gov’t would abuse its power Thought the Constitution would only benefit the rich and powerful Believed God should be mentioned in the Constitution Opposed the approval process: thought all 13 colonies should pass (instead of 9)

15 The Federalist Papers Pro-Constitution essays that were written by Hamilton, Madison & Jay Published anonymously to urge states to support the new Constitution

16 The Ratification of the Constitution
New Hampshire was the ninth state to ratify but the new gov’t would fail without the support of Virginia & New York Federalists agreed to add a bill of rights Constitution is passed in 1790 when all 13 states approved & George Washington becomes President

17 The Goals of Government
Form a more perfect Union Establish justice Insure domestic tranquility Provide for the common defense Promote the general welfare Secure the blessings of liberty

18 Principles of Limited Government
Federalism: division of power between the states and the national gov’t Separation of powers: power is shared by the executive, legislative and judicial branches of gov’t


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