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Presentation on theme: "RED SLIDE: These are notes that are very important and should be recorded in your science journal."— Presentation transcript:

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2 RED SLIDE: These are notes that are very important and should be recorded in your science journal.

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4 Please use this red line

5 -Please make notes legible and use indentations when appropriate. Please use this red line

6 - Please make notes legible and use indentations when appropriate. Please use this red line

7 -Please make notes legible and use indentations when appropriate. -Example of indent.

8 -Please make notes legible and use indentations when appropriate. -Example of indent. -Skip a line between topics

9 -Please make notes legible and use indentations when appropriate. -Example of indent. -Skip a line between topics -Dont skip pages

10 -Please make notes legible and use indentations when appropriate. -Example of indent. -Skip a line between topics -Dont skip pages -Make visuals clear and well drawn.

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12 -Please make notes legible and use indentations when appropriate. -Example of indent. -Skip a line between topics -Dont skip pages -Make visuals clear and well drawn. Please Label Phosphate Backbone Double Helix Nitrogen Base

13 RED SLIDE: These are notes that are very important and should be recorded in your science journal. BLACK SLIDE: Pay attention, follow directions, complete projects as described and answer required questions neatly.

14 Keep an eye out for The-Owl and raise your hand as soon as you see him. –He will be hiding somewhere in the slideshow

15 Keep an eye out for The-Owl and raise your hand as soon as you see him. –He will be hiding somewhere in the slideshow Hoot, Hoot Good Luck!

16 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

17 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from kiwi fruit (if time allows) –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

18 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

19 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

20 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

21 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

22 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

23 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

24 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

25 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

26 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

27 Overview of topics in this unit –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

28 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

29 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

30 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

31 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

32 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

33 Overview of topics in Part I –DNA Extraction from split pea –Discovery of DNA –DNAs Structure –Nucleotides –Building a DNA model –DNA replication –Cell Division –Chromosomes –Phases of Mitosis

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35 How old are you? ?

36 Answer: Billions of years old. This Product Belongs to Ryan P. Murphy Copyright 2010

37 Answer: Billions of years old. –How? This Product Belongs to Ryan P. Murphy Copyright 2010

38 The back story of our lives are that we are the product of billions of years of evolution.

39 The back story of our lives are that we are the product of billions of years of evolution. The very DNA that allows us to pass on our genetic information to our offspring has its roots in primitive microbes that existed billions of years ago.

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41 DNA DNA

42 DNA: Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. DNA: Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid.

43 Shape is called double helix. Shape is called double helix.

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45 DNA is a polymer (Long molecule). DNA is a polymer (Long molecule).

46 How long is the DNA chain inside of a cell? –Take your best guess.

47 Answer: The DNA in cells can hold lots of information and are very long. –Each cell has about 1.8 meters (6 feet) of DNA. 6 Feet of DNA

48 Answer: The DNA in cells can hold lots of information and are very long. –Each cell has about 1.8 meters (6 feet) of DNA. 6 Feet of DNA

49 Video! DNA wrapping. Shows how 6 feet of DNA can be found in a single cell. –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AF2wwMR eTf8http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AF2wwMR eTf8

50 The units of DNA are called nucleotides. The units of DNA are called nucleotides.

51 DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins.

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54 DNA through transcription makes mRNA. DNA through transcription makes mRNA. mRNA = Messenger RNA. mRNA = Messenger RNA.

55 mRNA through translation makes proteins mRNA through translation makes proteins

56 This is a dictionary of the genetic code.

57 Video of Protein Synthesis

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59 mRNA through translation makes proteins with the help of ribosomes. mRNA through translation makes proteins with the help of ribosomes.

60 Interesting note: If there were only 20 base pairs to be placed in any order, can you guess how many possibilities there would be for making proteins? Interesting note: If there were only 20 base pairs to be placed in any order, can you guess how many possibilities there would be for making proteins? or 1 x possible combinations or 1 x possible combinations

61 *** Note *** A typical human cell contains round 30,000 genes

62 Erwin Chargaff, American chemist, discovered the key facts necessary to determine the basic chemical structure of DNA. –One of the most important biological discoveries in the last 100 years.

63 Erwin Chargaff analyzed the amount of adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine in DNA of various species (1950). –One of the most important biological discoveries in the last

64 Chargaff warned that the technology of genetic engineering poses a greater threat to the world than the advent of nuclear technology. An irreversible attack on the biosphere is something so unheard of, so unthinkable to previous generations, that I only wish that mine had not been guilty of it. After Watson, Crick, and Wilkins received the Nobel prize in 1962, Chargaff withdrew from his lab and worked

65 Watson and Crick (1953) Discovered structure of DNA. –One of the most important biological discoveries in the last 100 years.

66 Watson and Crick (1953) Discovered structure of DNA. –One of the most important biological discoveries in the last 100 years.

67 Rosalind Franklin? Who is she?

68 She took X-Ray pictures of DNAs structure and lectured about phosphate being a part of the outside of the molecule.

69 – Watson attended her lecture.

70 Watson and Crick used her photograph and lectures to create a failed model of the helix that she proposed.

71 –Maurice Wilkins who was working with Rosalind Franklin showed Watson her results.

72 In 1962,

73 In 1962, Watson,

74 In 1962, Watson, Crick,

75 In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine.

76 In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine. Franklin had died of Ovarian Cancer.

77 In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine, Franklin had died of Ovarian Cancer. –The cancer that killed her may have been caused by working with X-Rays.

78 In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine, Franklin had died of Ovarian Cancer. –The cancer that killed her may have been caused by working with X-Rays. –The Nobel Prize only goes to living recipients, and can only be shared among three winners.

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80 Who thinks we should give an honorary Nobel Prize to Rosalind Franklin?

81 –Lets give a short round of applause to Rosalind Franklin. –Our Lady of DNA

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90 You can now do this question for homework, when I pass it out tomorrow.

91 Activity! Draw DNA in Detail.

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96 A AA G T C T T

97 Each unit called a nucleotide of DNA consists of 3 parts. Each unit called a nucleotide of DNA consists of 3 parts

98 A AA G T C T T Nucleotide

99 Phosphate backbone Phosphate backbone

100 A AA G T C T T Phosphate Backbone

101 A 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose) A 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose)

102 A AA G T C T T Ribose Sugar

103 A nitrogen base attached to the sugar A nitrogen base attached to the sugar

104 A AA G T C T T Nitrogen Base

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110 There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA A is for adenine A is for adenine G is for guanine G is for guanine C is for cytosine C is for cytosine T is for thymine T is for thymine

111 There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA A is for adenine A is for adenine G is for guanine G is for guanine C is for cytosine C is for cytosine T is for thymine T is for thymine

112 There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA A is for adenine A is for adenine G is for guanine G is for guanine C is for cytosine C is for cytosine T is for thymine T is for thymine

113 There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA A is for adenine A is for adenine G is for guanine G is for guanine C is for cytosine C is for cytosine T is for thymine T is for thymine

114 There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA A is for adenine A is for adenine G is for guanine G is for guanine C is for cytosine C is for cytosine T is for thymine T is for thymine

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119 A AA G T C T T

120 A AA G T C T T Nucleotide

121 A AA G T C T T Phosphate Backbone

122 A AA G T C T T Ribose Sugar

123 A AA G T C T T Nitrogen Base

124 A goes with T A goes with T C goes with G C goes with G WRONG! T – C or G - A WRONG! T – C or G - A You should know the correct base compositions of DNA nucleotides according to Chargaffs Rule

125 A goes with T A goes with T C goes with G C goes with G WRONG! T – C or G - A WRONG! T – C or G - A You should know the correct base compositions of DNA nucleotides according to Chargaffs Rule

126 A goes with T A goes with T C goes with G C goes with G WRONG! T – C or G - A WRONG! T – C or G - A You should know the correct base compositions of DNA nucleotides according to Chargaffs Rule

127 A goes with T A goes with T C goes with G C goes with G WRONG! T – C or G - A WRONG! T – C or G - A You should know the correct base compositions of DNA nucleotides according to Chargaffs Rule

128 Activity! Which of the base pairs below is incorrect. Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine

129 Answers! Which of the base pairs below is incorrect. Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Same challenge next slide

130 Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Adenine – Adenine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine

131 Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Adenine – Adenine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine

132 The almost final challenge on next slide, find the incorrect base pairing.

133 Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Thymine - Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine

134 Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Thymine - Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine

135 Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Thymine - Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine

136 Final challenge on next slide, find the incorrect base pairing.

137 Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Thymine - Adeninie Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Thymine - Adeninie Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine

138 Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Thymine - Adeninie Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine – Adenine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Thymine - Adeninie Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine

139 Try and figure out the picture under the boxes. –Raise your hand when you think you know. –You only get one guess.

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147 Remember me. Im Rosalind Franklin and I took X-ray pictures of DNA.

148 Activity! What is the mystery animal in the box below? G - ___ T - ___ A - ___

149 Answer! What is the mystery animal in the box below? G - __ T - __ A - __ CATGAA!

150 Activity! Name a movie starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, and Jude Law. C - ____ T - ____ A - ____ T -____ G -____ T - ____

151 Activity! Name an awesome movie starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, and Jude Law. C - _G___ T -_A___ A - _T___ A -_T__ T -_A__ G -_C__ T - _A___

152 Activity! What is best game to play in the whole wide world? A - ___ T - ___ C - ___

153 Answer! What is best game to play in the whole wide world? A - _T__ T - _A__ C - _G__

154 Activity! (Optional) – DNA Tag. –One person is it. They safely chase people around the zone. If youre about to get tagged, all you have to do is say any nucleotide and you are safe until they come back to tag you again where you must say a new base. The it cant hover. If you get tagged, your it. Cytosine

155 Activity! (Optional) Adenine – Thymine –This game requires one person to be blind folded. Everyone else moves away and freezes. When they say Adenine you must respond with Thymine. When you get found you are out. This sounds like a rip-off of Marco Polo!

156 Activity! (Optional) Cytosine – Guanine –This game requires one person to be blind folded. Everyone else moves away and freezes. When they say Cytosine you must respond with Guanine. When you get found you are out. That is the same game as before. Good Grief!

157 Activity! How fast can you read the left half of the genetic code below? –Saying the base pairs represented by their letter. A –- G –- T - C - A –- G –- T - A -- C – A – G –

158 Activity! How fast can you read the left half of the genetic code below? –Saying the base pairs represented by their letter. Adenine –- Guanine –- Thymine - Cytosine - Adenine–- Guanine –- Thymine - Adenine -- Cytosine – Adenine – Guanine –

159 Activity! How fast can you read the corresponding base pairs absent on the right half of the genetic code below? –Saying the base pairs represented by their letter. A –- G –- T - C - A –- G –- T - A -- C – A – G –

160 Activity! How fast can you read the corresponding base pairs absent on the right half of the genetic code below? –Saying the base pairs represented by their letter. A –- Thymine G –- Cytosine T - Adenine C - Guanine A –- Thymine G –- Cytosine T - Adenine A -- Thymine C – Guanine A – Thymine G – Cytosine

161 Activity! How fast can you read the corresponding base pairs absent on the right half of the genetic code below? –Saying the base pairs represented by their letter. Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Cytosine - Guanine Adenine –- Thymine Guanine –- Cytosine Thymine - Adenine Adenine -- Thymine Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine Guanine – Cytosine

162 Purines are the larger of the two types of bases found in DNA.

163 Pyrimidine Bases are the smaller bases found in DNA.

164 Which one of the two nitrogen base pairs is Purine?

165 Answer! Guanine is Purine, Thymine is a Pyrimidine

166 Which one of the two nitrogen base pairs is Pyridimine

167 Answer! Thymine is the Pyridimine and Guanine is the Purine (These two dont pair)

168 A big base (Purine) goes with a little base (Pyrimidine). A-T / C-G

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170 Which is the Purine, and which is the Pyrimidine?

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172 Purines (Bigger)

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174 Purines (Bigger) Pyrimidines (Smaller)

175 Which is the Purine, and which is the Pyrimidine?

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177 Pyrimidine

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179 Pyrimidine Purine

180 Can you point to a Purine on the twisting double helix below?

181 What are differences between DNA and RNA?

182 RNA RNA - Single strand - Single strand - Uracil replaces Thymine - Uracil replaces Thymine

183 RNA RNA - Single strand - Single strand - Uracil replaces Thymine - Uracil replaces Thymine

184 RNA RNA - Single strand. - Single strand. - Uracil replaces Thymine. - Uracil replaces Thymine.

185 End of Lecture But I dont want you to stop lecturing!!!

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