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Little Hercules Image courtesy of NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program, INDEX-SATAL 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Little Hercules Image courtesy of NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program, INDEX-SATAL 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Little Hercules Image courtesy of NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program, INDEX-SATAL 2010

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3 Average depth of the ocean: a)6 miles b)0.5 miles c)2.65 miles d)15 miles Mandy-Rae Cruickshank is a world-record free-diver

4 The average depth of the ocean is about 4,267 m (14,000 feet, approx 2.65 miles ). MARSH Town Hall

5 a) Mariana Trench b) Cayman Trench c) Peru-Chile Trench d) Tonga Trench What is the deepest part of the ocean?

6 Challenger Deep is approximately 11,030 meters (36,200 feet) deep. Pacific Ocean

7 Mariana Trench vs. Mt. Everest Image from: miles deep5.50 miles above sea level

8 <180m (~600 ft) Sigsbee Deep ~3,600m (~11,800 ft) Florida Plain 2,500 m (~8,300 ft) Dauphin Island

9 The average temperature of the deep ocean is: a) 15 F b) 36 F c) 57 F d) 72F

10 Water temperature in the deepest parts of the ocean averages about 36°F (2°C). Temperature in the ocean remains relatively constant until the shallows of the twilight zone

11 Sea level Sunlit Zone (Epiplelagic) 660 ft (200 m) Twilight Zone (Mesopelagic) 3,300 ft (1,000m) Dark Zone (Bathypelagic) 9,800 ft (4,000 m) Hadal Zone (Hadopelagic) 19,700 ft (6,000 m) Abyssal Zone (Abyssopelagic) 16,400 ft (5,000 m) Up to 36,100 feet (11,000 m) in some trenches

12 Sea level Koko Crater, Oahu 1 atmosphere of pressure : the pressure inside your lungs is the same as the pressure around you.

13 In the ocean, pressure works the same way. 2,500 meters = 250 atmospheres of pressure Thats about what your big toe would feel like if an elephant were standing on it! Water is heavier than air!

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15 Tanya Streeter – The Woman Who Dives the Deepest World Record Holder – 160m on a single breath!!! (6+ minutes!) That equals approx 1 ½ football fields!!!!!

16 1935, Credit: OAR/National Undersea Research Program (NURP)

17 S.C.U.B.A. – Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus

18 The 22 year old Mexican reached this depth on April 20, 2010 Ascent =135 min DEEPEST Guinness VERIFIED SCUBA DIVE = m 324 m Nuno Gomes Descent = 9 min

19 Why do these boats not sink? Because they are positively buoyant.

20 Neutrally buoyant Negatively buoyant

21 How are these fish neutrally buoyant? SWIM BLADDER OILY LIVER

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23 The Alvin underwater. Image courtesy of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutions (WHOI) The vessel weighs 17 tons. It allows for two scientists and one pilot to dive for up to nine hours at 4500 meters (15,000 ft). Submersible

24 The TitanicHydrothermal Vent - Black smoker Alvin in History Hydrogen bomb

25 Ann Curry and the Alvin

26 ROV Hercules tether

27 John Riley, ROV Pilot

28 MILITARY – retrieve missiles, search for mines

29 Oil & Gas industry – offshore development BP Oil Spill 2010

30 Marine Science – seafloor mapping, study ocean habitats Bumpy

31 Communication cables, energy source & Info transfer

32 Small Electric Vehicle Single camera, dive no deeper than 300 m (984 ft) Used by Science & Military

33 High Capability Electric Vehicle Dive to depths of 6,096 m (20,000 ft) have cameras, but cant perform detailed tasks Used by Science & Military

34 Work Class Vehicle Powered electronically & hydraulically 7 function manipulator 5 function grabber Drilling and construction/pipeline Person!

35 Heavy Work Class Vehicle Dives 3000 m (10,000 ft) multiple manipulators & grabbers

36 Programmed missions Battery power Less cost, deeper dives, longer missions (No real-time video available) There are International competitions for the best design. Not yet available in consumer market.

37 ***This is in your Resource folder on the flash drive.

38 Sea level Sunlit Zone (Epiplelagic) 660 ft (200 m) Twilight Zone (Mesopelagic) 3,300 ft (1,000m) Dark Zone (Bathypelagic) 9,800 ft (4,000 m) Hadal Zone (Hadopelagic) 19,700 ft (6,000 m) Abyssal Zone (Abyssopelagic) 16,400 ft (5,000 m) Up to 36,100 feet (11,000 m) in some trenches 2500 m (feed b/t m) 14,8000 ft (4500m) 6,561 ft (2000m) 19,685ft (6,000m) 8,000ft (2,438m) 3280 ft (1000m) 3300 ft (1,005m) 525ft (160m) 1,043ft (318m) 35,797ft (10,911m)

39 How deep can you go? onment/habitats-environment/habitats-oceans- env/cameron-how- deep/?source=news_cameron_mariana_story

40 s93Dc Fish that live exclusively below 6,000 m Fish from the ocean trenches like this rat-tail (left) look less strange than those that live in the mid-waters, such as this fangtooth (right)

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44 Sea level Sunlit Zone (Epiplelagic) 660 ft (200 m) Twilight Zone (Mesopelagic) 3,300 ft (1,000m) Dark Zone (Bathypelagic) 9,800 ft (4,000 m) Hadal Zone (Hadopelagic) 19,700 ft (6,000 m) Abyssal Zone (Abyssopelagic) 16,400 ft (5,000 m) Up to 36,100 feet (11,000 m) in some trenches

45 layers.html k-4/home/F_Oceans_K-4.html

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47 activities/water-sports/first-scuba-diver.htm fl/web/dsv/pressures.html

48 Cold water is more dense than warm water Salty water is more dense than fresh water DENSITY = Temperature, Salinity and Pressure

49 HMS Challenger

50 A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. a submersible has more limited underwater capability Submersibles typically have shorter range, and operate underwater almost exclusively, having little function at the surface. Many submersibles operate on a "tether" or "umbilical", remaining connected to a tender (a submarine, surface vessel or platform).

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