Presentation on theme: "Turn in your vocabulary quiz."— Presentation transcript:
1Turn in your vocabulary quiz. Session 3 – Comprehension and Practicum NGCARPD- Cohort 2 January 11, 2012Welcome back.Please sign in.Turn in your vocabulary quiz.Focus on Four Strands (reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language)The benefits of an integrated literacy approach (both in terms of reaching out to content areas beyond ELA and also in terms of research and media skills being integrated into the four strands)A focus on results rather than means (“the Standards leave room for teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed” (p. 4).)
2Today’s AgendaThis morning: -SSS and Common Core Correlation -Text Complexity This afternoon: -Review of CIS Model -Discussion/Sharing of Your Lessons -Overview and Requirements of Practicum
3Correlation Between Sunshine State Standards and Common Core Standards Today’s Focus: Informational Text
4Comparing FCAT 2.0 and Common Core Highlight references to informational text throughout the Sunshine State Standards for Reading.Highlight references to informational text throughout the CCSS for English Language Arts/Science standards. Note the cluster areas for Reading Standards for Informational Text:Key Ideas and DetailsCraft and StructureIntegration of Knowledge and IdeasRange of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
5Comparing FCAT 2.0 and Common Core Use chart paper (top half – SSS; bottom half – Common Core) and marker to create a graphic that represents the informational standards for your assigned grade level. (See sample)Discuss differences. Identify a speaker to share your findings.Post your chart paper on the wall in the appropriate sequence.Share findings. (3 minutes each).
7Text Complexity Key to Student Reading Success Text complexity matters because….“making textbooks easier ultimately denies students the very language, information, and modes of thought they need most to move up and on.”-Marilyn Jager Adams
8Text Complexity - ACT Study Purpose: Determine what distinguished the reading performance of students likely to succeed in college and not.Process:Set benchmark score on the reading test shown to be predictive of success in college (“21” on ACT composite score).Looked at results from a half million students.Divided texts into three levels of complexity: uncomplicated, more challenging, and complex.
9Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Comprehension Level (Averaged across Seven Forms)In Reading: Between the Lines, ACT demonstrates that student performance cannot be differentiated in any meaningful way by question type. Students do not perform differently if they are answering literal recall items or inferential items.
10Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Textual Element (Averaged across Seven Forms)ACT demonstrates that student performance cannot be differentiated in any meaningful way by question type. Students do not perform differently if they are answering vocabulary items or main idea.
11Text Complexity Matters Performance on complex texts is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are more likely to be ready for college and those who are less likely to be ready.Texts used in the ACT Reading Test reflect three degrees of complexity: uncomplicated, more challenging, and complex.
12Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Degree of Text Complexity (Averaged across Seven Forms)Test performance, according to ACT, is driven by text rather than questions. Thus, if students are asked to read a hard passage, they may only answer a few questions correctly, no matter what types of questions they may be. On the other hand, with an easy enough text, students may answer almost any questions right, again with no differences by question type.In this figure, performance on questions associated with uncomplicated and morechallenging texts both above and below the ACT College Readiness Benchmark forReading follows a pattern similar to those in the previous analyses.Improvement on each of the two kinds of questions is gradual and fairly uniform.1212
13Recap of ACT FindingsQuestion type and level (main idea, word meanings, details) is NOT the chief differentiator between student scoring above and below the benchmark. The degree of text complexity in the passages acted as the “sorters” within ACT. The findings held true for both males and females, all racial groups and was steady regardless of family income level. What students could read, in terms of its complexity--rather than what they could do with what they read—is greatest predictor of success. FCAT has complex passages and highly cognitive demanding questions.The ACT report goes on to describe features that made some texts harder to understand, including the complexity of the relationships among characters and ideas, amount and sophistication of the information detailed in the text, how the information is organized, the author’s style and tone, the vocabulary, and the author purpose. ACT concluded that based on these data, “performance on complex texts is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are likely to be ready for college and those who are not”FCAT is made up of complex passages and high cognitive demand questions.
14Text Requirements in Middle and High School Many students are engaged in shallow reading, skimming text for answers, focusing only on details and failing to make inferences in order to integrate different parts of the text. Years of reading in this superficial way will cause a student’s reading ability to deteriorate.For many students the decline of text demands in the courses that they take has both an immediate and long term impact on student achievement.
15Guiding QuestionsWhat do the Common Core Learning Standards mean by text complexity? What is a text complexity band? and How do we ensure the texts our students are reading are in the appropriate text complexity band?This presentation seeks to answer these questions.
16Overview o Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by:QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader.QuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software.Reader and TaskReader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment.
17Determining Text Complexity A Four-step Process:Determine the quantitative measures of the text.QualitativeQuantitativeAnalyze the qualitative measures of the text.Reflect upon the reader and task considerations.Reader and TaskOverview of the protocolRecommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band.
19Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Common Core State StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsWhat is a text complexity band?
20Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Common Core State StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsText ComplexityGrade BandsSuggestedLexile RangeSuggested ATOSBook Level Range**K-12-3450L – 790L2.0 – 4.04-5770L – 980L3.0 – 5.76-8955L – 1155L4.0 – 8.09-101080L – 1305L4.6 – 10.011-CCR1215L – 1355L4.8 – 12.0What is a text complexity band?
21Quantitative Measures The Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity:This document outlines the suggested ranges for each of the text complexity bands using Lexile Measures.
22Quantitative Measures Let’s imagine we want to see where a text falls on the quantitative measures “leg” of the text complexity triangle, using the Lexile text measure.For illustrative purposes, let’s use, “Shooting an Elephant” by George Orwell.Take a few minutes to read the story and estimate the appropriate grade level for instructional purposes.
23Quantitative Measures Lexile Text Measure:1180Flesch-Kincaid in Word: Grade Level 7.3In which of the text complexity bands would this text fall?
24Quantitative Measures Read and discuss the article entitled “Lexile-to-Grade Correspondence.” As you read, consider the following questions:What is the purpose of Lexile Measures?For what purposes should teachers NOT use Lexile Measures?What is IQR? What function does it serve?What is a stretch text?What other considerations exist for text selection in a classroom?Based on the information provided in the article, what is the best placement for “Shooting an Elephant”?
25Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Common Core Learning StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsText ComplexityGrade BandsSuggestedLexile RangeSuggested ATOSBook Level Range**K-1100L – 500L*1.0 – 2.52-3450L – 790L2.0 – 4.04-5770L – 980L3.0 – 5.76-8955L – 1155L4.0 – 8.09-101080L – 1305L4.6 – 10.011-CCR1215L – 1355L4.8 – 12.0What is a text complexity band?* The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas.** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL:
26Quantitative Measures Remember, however, that the quantitative measures is only the first of three “legs” of the text complexity triangle.Our final recommendation may be validated, influenced, or even over-ruled by our examination of qualitative measures and the reader and task considerations.
27Quantitative Measures Additional ResourcesLexile Measures and the Common Core State StandardsAccelerated reader and the Common Core State StandardsCoh-MetrixCoh-Metrix calculates the coherence of texts on a wide range of measures. It replaces common readability formulas by applying the latest in computational linguistics and linking this to the latest research in psycholinguistics.
28Step 2: Qualitative Measures Measures such as:StructureLanguage Demands and ConventionsKnowledge DemandsLevels of Meaning/Purpose
29Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Structure (could be story structure and/or form of piece)Simple ComplexExplicit ImplicitConventional UnconventionalEvents related in chronological order Events related out of chronological order (chiefly literary texts)Traits of a common genre or subgenre Traits specific to a particular discipline (chiefly informational texts)Simple graphics sophisticated graphicsGraphics unnecessary or merely supplemental to understanding the text Graphics essential to understanding the text and may provide information not elsewhere provided
30Qualitative Features of Text Complexity: Text Structure At your tables, complete the structure chart. Be prepared to share with the rest of the group.
31Qualitative Features of Text Complexity: Language Demands Language Demands: Conventionality and ClarityLiteral Figurative or ironicClear Ambiguous or purposefully misleadingContemporary, familiar Archaic or otherwise unfamiliarConversational General Academic and domain specificLight vocabulary load: few unfamiliar or academic words Many words unfamiliar and high academic vocabulary presentSentence structure straightforward Complex and varied sentence structuresThough vocabulary can be measured by quantifiable means, it is still a feature for careful consideration when selecting textsThough sentence length is measured by quantifiable means, sentence complexity is still a feature for careful consideration when selecting texts
32Qualitative Features of Text Complexity: Language Demands At your tables, complete the “language demands” chart. Be prepared to share with the rest of the group.
33Qualitative Features of Text Complexity: Knowledge Demands Knowledge Demands: Life Experience(literary texts)Simple theme Complex or sophisticated themesSingle theme Multiple themesCommon everyday experiences or clearly fantastical situations Experiences distinctly different from one’s ownSingle perspective Multiple perspectivesPerspective(s) like one’s own Perspective(s) unlike or in opposition to one’s own
34Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Knowledge Demands: Cultural/Literary Knowledge (chiefly literary texts)Everyday knowledge and familiarity with genre conventions required Cultural and literary knowledge usefulLow intertextuality (few if any references/allusions to other texts) High intertextuality (many references/allusions to other texts
35Qualitative Features of Text Complexity: Knowledge Demands At your tables, complete the “knowledge demands” chart. Be prepared to share with the rest of the group.
36Common Core Standards Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Levels of Meaning (chiefly literary texts) orpurpose (chiefly informational texts)Single level of meaning Multiple levels of meaningExplicitly stated purpose Implicit purpose, may be hidden or obscure
37Qualitative Features of Text Complexity: Levels of Meaning/Purpose At your tables, complete the “levels of meaning/purpose” chart. As a group, discuss the three questions at the bottom of the levels of meaning/purpose handout. Be prepared to share.
38Text Complexity: Qualitative Measures The Qualitative Measures Rubricsfor Literary and Informational Text:The rubric for literary text and the rubric for informational text allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software that tends to focus on more easily measured factors.
39Text Complexity: Qualitative Measures Because the factors for literary texts are different from informational texts, these two rubrics contain different content. However, the formatting of each document is exactly the same.And because these factors represent continua rather than discrete stages or levels, numeric values are not associated with these rubric. Instead, six points along each continuum is identified: not suited to the band, early-mid grade level, mid-end grade level, early-mid grade level, mid-end grade level, not suited to band.
40Text Complexity: Qualitative Measures How is the rubric used?And how would “Shooting an Elephant” fair when analyzed through the lens of the Text Rubric?
41Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations such as: Motivation Knowledge and experiencePurpose for readingComplexity of task assigned regarding textComplexity of questions asked regarding text
42Evaluate complexity of “Shooting an Elephant.” Based on the quantitative features (Lexile), qualitative analysis, and reader/task considerations, at what grade level would you teach this text?Discuss at your table and be prepared to share.
43Determining Text Complexity A Four-step Process:Determine the quantitative measures of the text.QualitativeQuantitativeAnalyze the qualitative measures of the text.Reflect upon the reader and task considerations.Reader and TaskOverview of the protocolRecommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band.
44Where do we find texts in the appropriate text complexity band? We could….Choose an excerpt of text from Appendix B as a starting place:Use available resources to determine the text complexity of other materials on our own.or…(Even choosing excerpts from Appendix B is less effective because it removes the reader and task considerations from the equation.)
45Common Core Lesson Plans by Grade Common Core Curriculum Maps
46Activity: Text Complexity Review the texts for your particular grade and subject. See CCSS Appendix Table of Contents.Discuss with your colleagues the appropriateness of documents in the Appendix for your standards and students. Also discuss the question: “How can we ensure that the documents we use in our classes are appropriately complex?”Be prepared to share with the group.
48Review of the CIS ModelTeacher presents a Hook Question for discussion.Students conduct predictive writing in response to an essential question.The teacher introduces Vocabulary – word parts, context, academic words, general vocabularyThe Teacher READs text ALOUD/Students Mark Text using codes.Students discuss text marking and write in response to question.Students read text a second time and take notes on graphic organizer.Students may write in response to note-taking.Students read text a third time. The teacher models question generation. Students generate questions on text.Students write in response to essential question.Student revise written response after the teacher shares the rubric.
49Table Talk: Making the CIS Model Work for You Review the CIS model and discuss modifications you would make to facilitate its use in your classroom. Remember to protect the research-based strategies which are needed to get results with your students.
50Developing the CIS Model for your Classroom At your table, share the CIS lesson you developed. Select one CIS model to be shared with the entire group.
51NGCARPD Practicum Requirements Narrative detailing the growth of two students over a nine-week periodReflection log for four meetingsSubmission of two CIS lessons with supporting documents, i.e. student work samples, rubrics, lesson texts, etc. (Although you are required to complete three, you will only submit two of them.)Video of CIS lesson submitted to Secondary Reading office.
52Practicum Requirement Issues We meet February 1, February 15, and March 7.You need to develop, implement, and document one CIS lesson to bring to one of our meetings. Do you want it to be February 1 or February 15?April 1 is the deadline for completion of all requirements.