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1 Session 1 Writing in Response to Reading Next Generation Content Area Reading – Professional Development (NGCAR-PD)

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1 1 Session 1 Writing in Response to Reading Next Generation Content Area Reading – Professional Development (NGCAR-PD)

2 Why write in response to reading? Reading and writing are both functional activities that can be combined to accomplish specific goals, such as learning new ideas presented in a text. For example, writing about information in a science or social studies text facilitates comprehension and learning. To deepen their understanding, students record, connect, analyze, personalize and manipulate key ideas from the text. 2

3 Taking Advantage of Writings Power Writing about material read facilitates comprehension. Writing instruction promotes students growth as readers. Writing facilitates content learning. Increasing how much students write makes them better readers. Discussion/see/?T_ID=23&P_ID=61&c1=1138&c2=1138& c3=1138 3

4 Writing in Response to Reading already presented in NGCAR-PD Directed note taking Text coding or text marking Question generation Writing in response to reading a passage 4

5 Cognitive Growth Cognitive growth is more likely when one is required to explain, elaborate, or defend ones position to others, as well as to oneself; striving for an explanation often makes a learner integrate and elaborate knowledge in new ways. –Vygotsky, 1978 Do you agree with this quote? Why or Why not? 5


7 Have students write about the texts they read. Respond in writing Writing personal reactions Analyzing text Interpreting text Write notes about text (directed note taking) Answer questions about a text in writing Create and answer questions about a text Write summaries of the text 7

8 8 · Role of the writer: What is the writer's role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object, number, etc.? · Audience: Who will be reading the writing: the teacher, other students, a parent, editor, people in the community, etc.? · Format: What is the best way to present this writing: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, an advertisement, , etc.? · Topic: Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous scientist, a prehistoric cave dweller, a character from literature, a chemical element or physical object, etc.? The RAFT strategy (Santa,1988) employs writing- to-learn activities to enhance understanding of informational text. Website for content area RAFT strategies

9 Read article Review student writing response Assess with rubric 9

10 An example of student writing in response to reading an essay The essay Life on the Edges, by Elizabeth Woodman, has not changed my views on the hunting of deer whatsoever. Although I understand that some people feel it is cruel to hunt and kill deer for sport, I believe that is perfectly okay to allow deer to be hunted in our society. I have uncles who have always hunted deer and they use the meat to feed their family and themselves. I don't think it is wrong, and I know that hunting deer allows the deer population to exist at a healthy level. Movies like Bambi have given people strong opinions about deer being innocent and unable to defend themselves. The article tends to favor protecting deer and looking at people who protect deer as heroes. Deer are beautiful animals, but people often forget how healthy deer meat is and they forget that deer have caused a lot of car accidents by walking across public roads and by being in the way of traffic. I believe that the only thing that may need to change is for people to come up with a way for deer to be protected from motorists and for motorists to be protected from deer. 10

11 Writing Rubric 11

12 12

13 Margaret Kemble Gage One of the Top Beautiful Lady Spies from History 13

14 Mrs. Gage, wife of the General Gage, commander of the British, was an American. She loved and felt great loyalty to her family, community, and country. She believed what the British were doing was wrong, yet she was married to the British Commandant. To his credit, her husband General Gage was also a decent man doing his best in an impossible situation. It was his sworn duty and responsibility to both enforce the laws that Parliament passed and to end the rebellion. It is very likely that it was Mrs. Gage who warned the Americans about British plans to march to Lexington and Concord to seize arms and arrest some of the leaders. 14

15 Text - Women: Margaret Kemble Gage Read the text, Women: Margaret Kemble Gage by Carol A. Spradling After reading the text, discuss with your partner or in a triad: What do you think about this person who historians believe might have told the Americans the British were coming? 15

16 18th Century Journal Entry Soon after you found out about what happened in Lexington and Concord, you heard that someone very close to General Gage is the person who told the patriots in Boston about the plans, and if it had not been for this person, two of the leaders would have been captured and probably killed. Also, most of the arms the people in those towns owned would have been taken by the British. What do you think about this person who historians believe might have told the Americans the British were coming? Write a paragraph of at least six (or more) sentences giving your assessment of this person. 16

17 Collaborative Writing With a partner or in triads, please share your journal entry with each other. After each person has read aloud their entry to the group, respond to the following: In what ways did your written response include text evidence? Did you come to a deeper understanding of this spy from history by listening to your team mates writing? Why or why not? 17

18 Summary Writing Teach students to: 1. Identify or select the main information 2. Delete trivial information 3. Delete redundant information 4. Write a short synopsis of the main and supporting information for each paragraph. For this strategy, explain each step and its purpose. Then model the strategy, after the teacher models, students practice applying it and receive teacher help and assistance as needed. 18

19 Summary Writing: Skeletons Students summarize a longer text by: Students create a skeleton outline by starting with a thesis statement for the passage Students generate main idea subheadings for each section of the text Students add two or three important details for each main idea Students convert their outline into a written summary of the whole text 19

20 Skeleton Writing Use the article you just read, Women: Margaret Kemble Gage, to summarize the text by: starting with a thesis statement for the passage generating main idea subheadings for each section of the text adding two or three important details for each main idea converting your outline into a written summary of the whole text NOTE: Your facilitator will randomly call on tables to share their outline and written summaries with the group 20 Handout 1

21 Reflection What value do you see in skeleton or summary writing? How would this look different from the beginning of the school year to the end of the school year? How would you use this your class? 21

22 Authentic writing tasks for learning science include: Explanatory essays in which students describe a complex science concept (e.g., photosynthesis) in depth. Field trip notes in which students record their observations of, and reactions to, flora and fauna. Laboratory logs in which students report their observations, hypotheses, methods, findings, interpretations, and mistakes-particularly mistakes-as these are a normal part of the scientific process. Science journals or diaries in which students describe their participation in science activities, such as fairs and competitions, and reflect on their actions and experiences. Environmental action letters in which students-under the teachers guidance-write to politicians, newspaper editors, and companies to promote positive environmental actions. Newspaper accounts in which students write on science and technology topics for their school or town newspapers. 22

23 Examples of Academic Writing in Science After reading the scientific articles about magnetism, write two paragraphs that define and explain magnetism and its role in the planetary system. Support your explanation with evidence from the articles. Which is the better energy source? After reading several scientific sources, write at least two paragraphs that compare the physics involved in nuclear energy and fossil fuels and argue which is the better energy source for urban communities. Support your position with text evidence. 23

24 Examples of Academic Writing in Math Write a word problem that reflects the following equation: B-8=39 Felise has $39. She has $8 less than her brother. How much money does Felises brother have? x = 10 4 Luigi is baking chicken and the preparation time is 10 minutes, which is one fourth of the baking time. What is the baking time of the chicken? 24

25 Writing and Reading Writing instruction should not replace reading instruction. The two should work together to promote students literacy growth. The writing experiences today were tied to reading experiences. 25

26 Follow-Up Students writing samples may include any of the following: Directed note taking Writing personal reactions Analyzing or interpreting text Answering questions about a text in writing Creating and answering questions about text Writing a summary of the text Guided journal writing Two column note-taking 26 Handouts 2 and 3

27 Writing Next The report explores effective strategies to improve writing adolescents in middle and high schools Identifies 11 elements of effective writing instruction Reveals the strength of each effect size 27

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