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Unit 5: Writing in Response to Reading

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1 Unit 5: Writing in Response to Reading
Session 1 Writing in Response to Reading Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Total Session Time ~ 1 hour Slides 1-3 (5 minutes) These slides provide the objectives for the session, the purpose for the session, and why writing contributes to reading comprehension. Next Generation Content Area Reading – Professional Development (NGCAR-PD)

2 Why write in response to reading?
Reading and writing are both functional activities that can be combined to accomplish specific goals, such as learning new ideas presented in a text. For example, writing about information in a science or social studies text facilitates comprehension and learning. To deepen their understanding, students record, connect, analyze, personalize and manipulate key ideas from the text. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Source: Stephen Graham’s Writing To Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Alliance for Excellent Education “Writing is sometimes seen as the “flip-side” of reading. It is often assumed that adolescents who are proficient readers must be proficient writers, too. If this were the case, then helping students learn to read better would naturally lead to the same students writing well. However, although reading and writing are complementary skills whose development runs a roughly parallel course, they do not necessarily go hand in hand. Many adolescents are able to handle average reading demands but have severe difficulties with writing. While readers form a mental representation of thoughts written by someone else, writers formulate their own thoughts, organize them, and create a written record of them using the conventions of spelling and grammar.” Effective reading-writing learning strategies should include characteristic of (1) learning consists of critical thinking, analysis, reasoning and understanding, (2) using revision to evaluate meaning, (3) fostering student's prior knowledge and, (4) personal involvement in reading and writing by making personal choices or taking positions. All writing assignments should be encouraged before, during, and after the reading of literature. Reading and writing strategies that illustrate the characteristics of critical thinking and revision are Dialogical Reading and Writing, Letter to the Editor, Extended Writing about Literature (a formal analysis about the literary work) and Extended Writing about Content (a synthesis about the major concepts of the text). The strategies of Guided Writing Procedure, i.e. the student will brainstorm ideas about a topic, group ideas into categories, read the text, and write about the topic using the text; and KWL are examples of the characteristic of promoting students' use of prior knowledge.

3 Taking Advantage of Writing’s Power
Writing about material read facilitates comprehension. Writing instruction promotes students’ growth as readers. Writing facilitates content learning. Increasing how much students write makes them better readers. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides 2-3 (5 minutes) Provide a quick review. Remind participants of the power of writing as a way of learning. Explain that a wonderful example of the points made on this slide is a video they had viewed in a previous sub-section (5a.5). Remind participants of how the video, “ Using Metacognitive Logs in Science,” illustrates all three of the points made on this slide. This video may be found at: NOTE: In the video, the eighth-grade science teacher used: a two-column metacognitive reading log to help students organize their questions and observations log entries pair-share worksheets self-reflections

4 Writing in Response to Reading already presented in NGCAR-PD
Directed note taking Text coding or text marking Question generation Writing in response to reading a passage Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Provided for quickly reviewing how writing in response to reading has already been introduced and practiced in this entire module.

5 Cognitive Growth Cognitive growth “is more likely when one is required to explain, elaborate, or defend one’s position to others, as well as to oneself; striving for an explanation often makes a learner integrate and elaborate knowledge in new ways.” –Vygotsky, 1978 Do you agree with this quote? Why or Why not? Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slide 6 (5 minutes) Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. In M.Cole, V. John-Steiner, s.Scribmer, & B. Souberman (Eds. & Trans). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Writing forces students to explain, elaborate, and defend their position and therefore stretches the students’ cognitive growth. Discuss this quote (on the slide) at their tables using the question, “Do you agree with this quote? Why or why not?”

6 Different Types of Writing in Response to Reading
Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides 7-8 (2 minutes) These slides provide examples of ways teachers may ask students to write about texts they have read.

7 Have students write about the texts they read.
Respond in writing Writing personal reactions Analyzing text Interpreting text Write notes about text (directed note taking) Answer questions about a text in writing Create and answer questions about a text Write summaries of the text Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading RAFT is another good content area writing strategy. You can find out more at:

8 The RAFT strategy (Santa,1988) employs writing-to-learn activities to enhance understanding of informational text. · Role of the writer: What is the writer's role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object, number, etc.? · Audience: Who will be reading the writing: the teacher, other students, a parent, editor, people in the community, etc.? · Format: What is the best way to present this writing: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, an advertisement, , etc.? · Topic: Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous scientist, a prehistoric cave dweller, a character from literature, a chemical element or physical object, etc.? Provide handout for RAFT by content area Website for content area RAFT strategies

9 Life on the Edges by Elizabeth Woodman
Read article Review student writing response Assess with rubric

10 An example of student writing in response to reading an essay
The essay Life on the Edges, by Elizabeth Woodman, has not changed my views on the hunting of deer whatsoever. Although I understand that some people feel it is cruel to hunt and kill deer for sport, I believe that is perfectly okay to allow deer to be hunted in our society. I have uncles who have always hunted deer and they use the meat to feed their family and themselves. I don't think it is wrong, and I know that hunting deer allows the deer population to exist at a healthy level. Movies like Bambi have given people strong opinions about deer being innocent and unable to defend themselves. The article tends to favor protecting deer and looking at people who protect deer as heroes. Deer are beautiful animals, but people often forget how healthy deer meat is and they forget that deer have caused a lot of car accidents by walking across public roads and by being in the way of traffic. I believe that the only thing that may need to change is for people to come up with a way for deer to be protected from motorists and for motorists to be protected from deer. HANDOUT RUBRIC!!!!! TABLE DISCUSSION FIRST THEN GROUP DISCUSSION OF TABLE SCORES Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides 9 (3 minutes) An example of student writing in response to reading an essay. This example is provided to illustrate for the participants how the students might respond in writing to reading an essay. Ask participants to assess this students’ understanding of the essay…..does the writing reveal understanding of the text read? In what ways?

11 Writing Rubric

12 An Example from the study of the American Revolution
Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides (5 minutes) Introduce the Guided Journal Writing Activity. See Activity in the Facilitator Notes

13 Margaret Kemble Gage One of the Top Beautiful Lady Spies from History
Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading PROVIDE THIS BACKGROUND INFORMATION TO PARTICIPANTS: (read to them while they view the portrait) She was the wife of General Thomas Gage, who led the British Army during the American Revolutionary War, and is said to have spied against him out of sympathy for the Revolution. She was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey and resided in East Brunswick Township. Historical texts, most notably Paul Revere’s Ride suggest that Mrs. Gage provided Joseph Warren with information regarding General Gage’s raid at Lexington and Concord. All of the circumstantial evidence shows that Dr. Warren’s informer was indeed Margaret Kemble Gage – a lady of divided loyalties to both her husband and her native land.  As a result, Gage was sent to England aboard the Charming Nancy on her husband’s orders in the summer of Gage, Thomas (1719 or ) commander in chief of British forces in North America ( ) and the last royal governor of Massachusetts ( ), born in Firle, Sussex, England. Gage was charged with enforcing the Intolerable Acts in the face of a well-organized and angry populace. When he sent troops to seize military stores at Concord and to apprehend John Hancock and Samuel Adams (April 19, 1775), the fighting that broke out marked the start of the Revolutionary War. At the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775), Gage's only other significant engagement of the war, the British casualty rate was nearly 40 percent. As an outnumbered wartime commander in a hostile region, Gage was unable to meet the unrealistic expectations of his home government and was recalled to England in October 1775.

14 Mrs. Gage, wife of the General Gage, commander of the British, was an American. She loved and felt great loyalty to her family, community, and country. She believed what the British were doing was wrong, yet she was married to the British Commandant. To his credit, her husband General Gage was also a decent man doing his best in an impossible situation. It was his sworn duty and responsibility to both enforce the laws that Parliament passed and to end the rebellion. It is very likely that it was Mrs. Gage who warned the Americans about British plans to march to Lexington and Concord to seize arms and arrest some of the leaders. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Give participants time to read this slide to themselves.

15 Text - “Women: Margaret Kemble Gage”
Read the text, Women: Margaret Kemble Gage by Carol A. Spradling After reading the text, discuss with your partner or in a triad: What do you think about this person who historians believe might have told the Americans the British were coming? Handout 1 Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides 17 (10 minutes) Participants read the text in Handout 1, Women: Margaret Kemble Gage, and then discuss: What do you think about this person who told the Americans the British were coming?” Afterwards, participants discuss and share the gist of their discussion.

16 18th Century Journal Entry
Soon after you found out about what happened in Lexington and Concord, you heard that someone very close to General Gage is the person who told the patriots in Boston about the plans, and if it had not been for this person, two of the leaders would have been captured and probably killed. Also, most of the arms the people in those towns owned would have been taken by the British. What do you think about this person who historians believe might have told the Americans the British were coming? Write a paragraph of at least six (or more) sentences giving your assessment of this person. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides (10 minutes) If participants need additional support for writing a journal entry read the following to them: The day after Lexington and Concord, you learned that the person who told the Americans (your side) was the wife of the General. She is an American, but she is his wife as well and he trusted her. What do you think about her now? This woman has dealt with two conflicting duties of loyalty. Without knowing more, what do you think of the choice she made? Would you want someone you trust completely to make such a choice against you? What do you think this did to their relationship? Express your thoughts as though you are the fictional character they created in “Who Am I?” Use the language and expressions of that time to the extent possible. Remember not to mention things that did not exist at that time. Write the journal as if it is the years before the Revolutionary war.

17 Collaborative Writing
With a partner or in triads, please share your journal entry with each other. After each person has read aloud their entry to the group, respond to the following: In what ways did your written response include text evidence? Did you come to a deeper understanding of this spy from history by listening to your team mates’ writing? Why or why not? Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Discuss the following questions as a group: Why is it important to give students the opportunity to share their written responses in small groups? Possible answers: **develops a reading/writing learning community **develops differing points of view about the same topic (interpretation) **collaboration learning/cooperative learning is a proven best practice when tied directly to citing text evidence

18 Summary Writing Teach students to:
Identify or select the main information Delete trivial information Delete redundant information Write a short synopsis of the main and supporting information for each paragraph. For this strategy, explain each step and its purpose. Then model the strategy, after the teacher models, students practice applying it and receive teacher help and assistance as needed. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides (10 minutes) Introduce the two types of summary writing.

19 Summary Writing: Skeletons
Students summarize a longer text by: Students create a “skeleton” outline by starting with a thesis statement for the passage Students generate main idea subheadings for each section of the text Students add two or three important details for each main idea Students convert their outline into a written summary of the whole text Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading

20 Skeleton Writing Use the article you just read, “Women: Margaret Kemble Gage”, to summarize the text by: starting with a thesis statement for the passage generating main idea subheadings for each section of the text adding two or three important details for each main idea converting your outline into a written summary of the whole text NOTE: Your facilitator will randomly call on tables to share their outline and written summaries with the group Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Experiences that you facilitate and have participants reflect upon will have the most lasting effect because “telling” is not “teaching”. Therefore it is important to have the participants actually work as a group to create/write these summaries and then reflect on the value of the experience for students. They will quickly forget a PowerPoint slide but will long remember the experience of summarizing the text. Remember to ask the question, then randomly call on participants for responses. Handout 1

21 Reflection What value do you see in skeleton or summary writing?
How would this look different from the beginning of the school year to the end of the school year? How would you use this your class? Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Ask tables to think about and respond to each other in a small group, then RANDOMLY call on tables to share. It is important to model NOT calling on volunteers but randomly calling upon tables---this is a practice you want to promote in their classrooms, so you are modeling: Pose the question Allow time for small groups to consider possible answers Randomly call on a table/group to answer This type of questioning strategy will vastly increase engagement both in the classroom and for adult learners.

22 Authentic writing tasks for learning science include:
Explanatory essays in which students describe a complex science concept (e.g., photosynthesis) in depth. Field trip notes in which students record their observations of, and reactions to, flora and fauna. Laboratory logs in which students report their observations, hypotheses, methods, findings, interpretations, and mistakes-particularly mistakes-as these are a normal part of the scientific process. Science journals or diaries in which students describe their participation in science activities, such as fairs and competitions, and reflect on their actions and experiences. Environmental action letters in which students-under the teacher’s guidance-write to politicians, newspaper editors, and companies to promote positive environmental actions. Newspaper accounts in which students write on science and technology topics for their school or town newspapers. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Slides 25 (5 minutes) Share only if there are science teachers as participants.

23 Examples of Academic Writing in Science
After reading the scientific articles about magnetism, write two paragraphs that define and explain magnetism and its role in the planetary system. Support your explanation with evidence from the articles. Which is the better energy source? After reading several scientific sources, write at least two paragraphs that compare the physics involved in nuclear energy and fossil fuels and argue which is the better energy source for urban communities. Support your position with text evidence. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading

24 Examples of Academic Writing in Math
Write a word problem that reflects the following equation: B-8=39 Felise has $39. She has $8 less than her brother. How much money does Felise’s brother have? x = 10 4 Luigi is baking chicken and the preparation time is 10 minutes, which is one fourth of the baking time. What is the baking time of the chicken? Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading

25 Writing and Reading Writing instruction should not replace reading instruction. The two should work together to promote students’ literacy growth. The writing experiences today were tied to reading experiences. Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Conclude with the point that writing and reading can work together to promote student understanding of text. However writing instruction is NOT replacing reading instruction. Source: Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading, A Report from the Carnegie Corporation of New York Steve Graham and Michael Hebert

26 Follow-Up Students writing samples may include any of the following:
Directed note taking Writing personal reactions Analyzing or interpreting text Answering questions about a text in writing Creating and answering questions about text Writing a summary of the text Guided journal writing Two column note-taking Unit 5, Session 1 – Writing in Response to Reading Classroom Application/Follow Up (2 minutes) Have participants locate Handout 3, Writing in Response to Reading Application and Follow-Up. Implement one or more activities into their classrooms and bring back student work/evidence. (1 hour of outside work) When the samples are brought back to class, use the protocol provided in Handout 2 to discuss: The requesting team/individual states what it needs or wants from the examination of the student work, thereby accepting responsibility for focusing the discussion. This focus is usually made in the form of a specific request, but it can be as generic as: “How can we make this better?” or “What is our next step?” (advancing the student learning). Handouts 2 and 3

27 Writing Next The report explores effective strategies to improve writing adolescents in middle and high schools Identifies 11 elements of effective writing instruction Reveals the strength of each effect size


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