Presentation on theme: "Uses of the Accusative and the Ablative Cases + Impersonal Verbs Stage 28."— Presentation transcript:
Uses of the Accusative and the Ablative Cases + Impersonal Verbs Stage 28
Uses of the Accusative So far, we have learned two uses of the accusative case: 1.Accusative Direct Object mando T. Flavio Domitiano regnum populumque meum. I bequeath to T. Flavius Domitian my kingdom and my people. 2.Accusative Object of a Prepositional Phrase Salvius Belimicum ad aulam sine mora invitavit. Salvius invited Belimicus to the palace without delay.
Accusative of Duration of Time A third use is the accusative of duration or extent of time. It indicates HOW LONG something went on i.e. it answers the question for how long? multos annos hīc habito. I have lived here for many years. duas horas laborabant. They worked for two hours. The accusative of duration of time often appears as an accusative noun-adjective pair where the noun expresses a period of time (dies, hora, annus) and the adjective expresses an amount (multus, duo, plurimus).
Accusative of Duration of Time Practice Hospites tres horas cenabant. The guests dined for three hours. Agricola provinciam septem annos administrabat. Agricola governed the province for seven years. Sex dies navigabamus. We were sailing for six days.
Uses of the Ablative Case We have seen the ablative case used as the object of a prepositional phrase. Salvius, cum de morte regis audivisset, e castris discessit. When Salvius heard about the death of the king, he departed from the camp.
Ablative of Time When The second use of the ablative is the ablative of time when. It indicates AT WHAT POINT IN TIME something happened i.e. it answers the question when? nona hora ad aulam venit. He came to the palace at the ninth hour. decimo die, discessit. He left on the tenth day. The ablative of time when often appears as an ablative noun-adjective pair where the noun expresses a period of time (dies, hora, annus) and the adjective expresses an amount (multus, duo, plurimus).
Ablative of Time When Practice Quarto die revenit rex. On the 4 th day, the king returned. Secunda hora libertus Memorem excitare temptavit. At the second hour, the freedman tried to wake up Memor. Media nocte hostes castra nostra oppugnaverunt. In the middle of the night, the enemy attacked our camp.
Ablative of Means/Instrument We have also seen the ablative appear without a preposition. miles, vulnere impeditus, tandem cessit. The soldier, hindered by his wound, gave in at last. iuvenis, gladio armatus, ad castra contendit. The young man, armed with a sword, hurried to the camp. servi, catenis vincti, in fundo laborabant. The slaves, bound with chains, were working on the farm. This is called an ablative of means or instrument because it either answers the question by what means? or with what instrument?
Ablative of Means or Instrument Practice 1.Salvius, audacia Belimici attonitus, nihil dixit. Salvius, astonished by the audacity of Belimicus, said nothing. 2.mercator, fustibus verberatus, in fossa exanimatus iacebat. The merchant, beaten by clubs, was lying in the ditch, unconscious. 3.milites, vallo defensi, barbaris diu resistebant. The soldiers, defended by the wall, resisted the barbarians for a long time. 4.Uxor mea anulum, gemmis ornatum, emit. My wife bought a ring decorated with gems. 5.Hospites, arte ancillae delectati, plauserunt. The guests, delighted by the skill of the slave girl, applauded.
Impersonal Verbs These are verbs that are always translated with IT as the subject. placet – it is pleasing (+ dat) decet – it is proper taedet – it is tiring oportet – it is right pluit – it is raining advesperascit – it is getting dark