6 Fig. 22-2Linnaeus (classification)Hutton (gradual geologic change)Lamarck (species can change)Malthus (population limits)Cuvier (fossils, extinction)Lyell (modern geology)Darwin (evolution, natural selection)Wallace (evolution, natural selection)American RevolutionFrench RevolutionU.S. Civil War17501800185019001795Hutton proposes his theory of gradualism.1798Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.”1809Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution.1830Lyell publishes Principles of Geology.Figure 22.2 The historical context of Darwin’s life and ideas1831–1836Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle.18371837Darwin begins his notebooks.1844Darwin writes essay on descent with modification.1858Wallace sends his hypothesis to Darwin.1859The Origin of Species is published.
10 Layers of deposited sediment Younger stratum with more recent fossils Fig. 22-3Layers of depositedsedimentYounger stratumwith more recentfossilsFigure 22.3 Formation of sedimentary strata with fossilsOlder stratumwith older fossils
18 Fig. 22-5 Figure 22.5 The voyage of HMS Beagle GREATBRITAINEUROPENORTHAMERICAATLANTICOCEANTheGalápagosIslandsAFRICAPintaGenovesaMarchenaEquatorSOUTHAMERICASantiagoDaphneIslandsPinzónAUSTRALIAFernandinaPACIFICOCEANIsabelaFigure 22.5 The voyage of HMS BeagleFor the Discovery Video Charles Darwin, go to Animation and Video Files.SantaCruzAndesCape ofGood HopeSantaFeSanCristobalTasmaniaFlorenzaEspañolaCape HornNewZealandTierra del Fuego
24 Darwin’s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of Linnaeus Fig. 22-7Darwinian view: the history of life is like a tree with branches representing life’s diversityDarwin’s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of LinnaeusFigure 22.7 “I think . . .”
25 Fig. 22-8 Figure 22.8 Descent with modification Millions of years ago Hyracoidea(Hyraxes)Sirenia(Manateesand relatives)MoeritheriumBarytheriumDeinotheriumMammutPlatybelodonStegodonMammuthusFigure 22.8 Descent with modificationElephas maximus(Asia)Loxodontaafricana(Africa)Loxodonta cyclotis(Africa)34245.52104Millions of years agoYears ago
42 EXPERIMENT Experimental transplant of guppies Fig. 22-13a Predator: Killifish; preysmainly on juvenileguppies (which do notexpress the color genes)Experimentaltransplant ofguppiesPools withkillifish,but noguppies priorto transplantGuppies: Adult males havebrighter colors than thosein “pike-cichlid pools”Figure Can predation result in natural selection for color patterns in guppies?Predator: Pike-cichlid; preys mainly on adult guppiesGuppies: Adult males are more drab in colorthan those in “killifish pools”
43 Area of colored spots (mm2) colored spots Number of Fig bRESULTS1212101088Area of coloredspots (mm2)colored spotsNumber of664422Figure Can predation result in natural selection for color patterns in guppies?SourcepopulationTransplantedpopulationSourcepopulationTransplantedpopulation
69 Homologous characteristic FigBranch point(common ancestor)Lungfishes1AmphibiansTetrapods2MammalsTetrapod limbsAmniotes3Lizardsand snakesAmnion4CrocodilesFigure Tree thinking: information provided in an evolutionary treeHomologouscharacteristic5OstrichesBirds6FeathersHawks andother birds