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Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams was elected president in 1824.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams was elected president in 1824."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams was elected president in 1824. (pages 334–335) William Crawford, Andrew Jackson, and Henry Clay were the other Republican Party candidates. No candidate received a majority of the electoral votes, so the House of Representatives selected the president.

2 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Election of 1824 (cont.) (pages 334–335) -Clay and Adams struck a deal. -Clay agreed to use his influence as speaker of the house to defeat Jackson, hoping to gain the secretary of state post in return. -Adams did name Clay as secretary of state. -Andrew Jacksons followers accused the two men of making a corrupt bargain and stealing the election.

3 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Election of 1824 (cont.) During the Adams presidency, his policies ran against popular opinion. He wanted a stronger navy, scientific expeditions supported by government funds, and direct federal involvement in economic growth. Congress turned down many of his proposals. Some members of Congress wanted a more limited role for the federal government. (pages 334–335)

4 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Election of 1828 The election was a vicious campaign between Jackson and Adams. (pages 335–336) The party divided into two: the Democratic- Republicans nominated Jackson, and the National Republicans nominated Adams. Democratic-Republicans favored states rights.

5 Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. New elements were introduced in the 1828 election, and many became a permanent part of election campaigns. The Election of 1828 (cont.) (pages 335–336) -Mudslinging, or attempts to ruin the opponent with insults -Election slogans, rallies, buttons, and campaign events

6 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson won the election in a landslide. He received the most votes of the new frontier states and many votes in the South. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, who had served as Adamss vice president, switched parties to run with Jackson. The Election of 1828 (cont.) (pages 335–336)

7 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson as President Jackson was an American success story. (pages 336–337) He went from being a member of a poor farm family to being a war hero to becoming the president of the United States.

8 Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Democracy broadened under Jackson. He promised equal protection and equal benefits for all Americans, at least for white American men. Between 1824 and 1828, the percentage of white voting males in presidential elections increased from 36.9 to 57.6 percent. The right to vote, or suffrage, continued to expand for white men. In 1840 more than 80 percent of white males voted in the presidential election. Jackson as President (cont.) (pages 336–337)

9 Section 1-15 By 1828 state constitutions changed to allow people, not state legislatures, to choose presidential electors. Jackson as President (cont.) (pages 336–337)

10 Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson instituted the spoils system. He replaced government employees with his supporters. The fired workers were angry and protested. Jackson felt that a new group of employees would be good for democracy. Jackson as President (cont.) (pages 336–337)

11 Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jacksons supporters made the political system more democratic by abandoning the caucus system and replacing it with nominating conventions. Instead of major political candidates being chosen by committees of members of Congress, state delegates would select the partys presidential candidate. More people could now participate in the selection process. Jackson as President (cont.) (pages 336–337)

12 Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The first national party convention for the Democrats was in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1832. The convention drew delegates from each state that would nominate a candidate receiving two-thirds of the vote. Jackson was nominated. Jackson as President (cont.) (pages 336–337)

13 Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Tariff Debate In 1828 Congress passed a very high tariff on goods imported from Europe. (pages 338–339) This tariff made European goods more expensive. Manufacturers in the United States, especially the Northeast, were happy because they thought Americans would now be even more likely to buy American- made products.

14 Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Southerners hated the tariff and protested because they traded their cotton with Europe for manufactured goods. Now they would have to pay more for these items. The Tariff Debate (cont.) (pages 338–339)

15 Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Some Southerners called for the Southern states to secede, or break away and form their own government. John C. Calhoun, a believer in states rights, argued for nullification, or canceling a federal law it considered unconstitutional, and for secession. He said that states have rights and powers independent of the federal government, that states had created the federal government, and they should be able to have the last word on decisions affecting them. The Tariff Debate (cont.) (pages 338–339)

16 Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Webster-Hayne Debate was a response to these issues. In January 1830, Senator Daniel Webster challenged the speech given by Robert Hayne, a senator from South Carolina who defended the right of states to nullify acts of the federal government and to secede. Webster defended the Constitution and the Union arguing that nullification would cause the end of the Union. The Tariff Debate (cont.) (pages 338–339)

17 Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson defended the Union, saying it must be preserved. Vice President Calhoun was shocked. When he won election to the Senate in December 1832, he resigned as vice president. The Tariff Debate (cont.) (pages 338–339)

18 Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The nullification crisis grew, and the threat of the Union splitting apart intensified. In 1832 Congress passed a new, lower tariff, hoping that the Southern protest would die down. But it did not. South Carolinas state legislature passed the Nullification Act, saying that it would not pay the illegal tariffs of 1828 and 1832. The South Carolina legislature threatened to secede if the federal government interfered. The Tariff Debate (cont.) (pages 338–339)

19 Section 1-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson supported a compromise bill by Clay, lowering the tariff. He also made sure that the South would accept it. He persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill, which allowed the president to use the United States military to enforce acts of Congress. The Tariff Debate (cont.) (pages 338–339)

20 Section 1-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. South Carolina accepted the compromise tariff and state leaders voted to put aside the Nullification Act. The crisis between a state and the federal government was over for the time being. The Tariff Debate (cont.) (pages 338–339)

21 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Moving Native Americans President Andrew Jackson supported relocating Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi River. (pages 341–344) Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. The federal government paid Native Americans to move west.

22 Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson also sent officials to negotiate treaties with the southeastern Native Americans. In 1834 Congress created the Indian Territory (a region in present-day Oklahoma) for Native Americans from the southeast. Moving Native Americans (cont.) (pages 341–344)

23 Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Cherokee Nation refused to give up its land in Georgia. Treaties of the 1790s recognized the Cherokee people as a separate nation with their own laws, but Georgia did not recognize the Cherokee laws. In the Supreme Court case Worcester v. Georgia in 1832, the Cherokee sued the state. Chief Justice Marshall ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee. Moving Native Americans (cont.) (pages 341–344)

24 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Further, the Court stated that only the federal government had authority over matters involving the Cherokee. President Jackson disagreed and supported Georgias efforts to remove the Cherokee. Moving Native Americans (cont.) (pages 341–344)

25 Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1832 a few Cherokee signed a treaty giving up their land, but most of the 17,000 Cherokee refused to honor it. General Winfield Scott and an army of 7,000 federal troops came to remove the Cherokee and threatened force if they did not leave. The long Cherokee march west began and became known as the Trail of Tears, the trail along which they cried. Moving Native Americans (cont.) (pages 341–344)

26 Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Native American Resistance Black Hawk led a group of Sauk and Fox people back to Illinois in 1832 to recapture the land given up in a treaty. (pages 344–345) State and federal troops used force to chase them into the Mississippi River and slaughtered most of the Native Americans as they tried to flee westward into present-day Iowa. The troops killed hundreds.

27 Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Seminole people of Florida successfully resisted removal. They went to war instead. In 1835 the Seminole and a group of African Americans together attacked white settlements along the Florida coast. They used guerrilla tactics successfully against the American soldiers. By 1842 more than 1,500 American soldiers had died. Native American Resistance (cont.) (pages 344–345)

28 Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The government finally gave up and let some of the Seminole remain in Florida. However, many of them had died in the long war, and many were captured and forced to move west. Native American Resistance (cont.) (pages 344–345)

29 Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Only a few scattered groups of Native Americans lived east of the Mississippi River after 1842. Most had been removed from their lands. They gave up more than 100 million acres east of the Mississippi and received about $68 million and 32 million acres of land west of the Mississippi. They lived in reservations, divided by nations. Native American Resistance (cont.) (pages 344–345)

30 Section 3-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. War Against the Bank President Jackson challenged the Bank of the United States. (pages 348–351) He attacked it for being an organization of the wealthy in which the people had no control. Private bankers ran the Bank even though it was chartered, or given a government permit, to operate by the federal government.

31 Section 3-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. War Against the Bank (cont.) (pages 348–351) -In 1832 Nicholas Biddle, the Banks president, applied early for a new charter even though the charter was good until 1836. -Senators Clay and Webster, friends of Biddle, used the Bank as a ploy to try to defeat Jackson and allow Clay to become president in 1832. -They figured that Jackson would veto the charter and lose support. -Jackson did veto the bill and denounced the Bank for not caring about the poor, only the wealthy.

32 Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the 1832 presidential election, many people supported Jacksons veto of the Bank charter. He was reelected, receiving 219 electoral votes to Clays 49. Martin Van Buren was elected vice president. War Against the Bank (cont.) (pages 348–351)

33 Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson decided on a plan to kill the Bank after he was reelected. He ordered the withdrawal of all government deposits from the Bank and placed them in smaller state banks. In 1836 Biddle refused to sign a new charter for the Bank, and it closed. War Against the Bank (cont.) (pages 348–351)

34 Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson did not run for a third term. The Democrats selected Martin Van Buren, who faced opposition from the Whigs, a new political party that included former National Republicans and others opposed to Jackson. Van Buren easily defeated his Whig opponents and became president. War Against the Bank (cont.) (pages 348–351)

35 Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Panic of 1837 hit right after Van Buren took office. Land values dropped, investments suddenly fell off, and banks failed. People lost confidence. The panic led into a recession that lasted for about six years. War Against the Bank (cont.) (pages 348–351)

36 Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. During the depression, thousands of businesses closed and hundreds of thousands of people lost jobs. Prices rose so high that people could hardly afford their basic needs. Van Buren believed in laissez-faire, or the principle that the government should not involve itself in the nations economy, so he did little to help the economic problems. War Against the Bank (cont.) (pages 348–351)

37 Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. War Against the Bank (cont.) (pages 348–351) -The situation worsened and the administration did take a few steps although they had little effect on the crisis. -The depression turned all the Jackson supporters against his friend and colleague President Van Buren.

38 Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Whigs Come to Power Democratic presidents had been in office for 12 years. (page 351) Now the Whigs thought it was time to win the 1840 election. They nominated William Henry Harrison, a War of 1812 hero, like Jackson. John Tyler was Harrisons running mate. The Democrats nominated Van Buren.

39 Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Whigs needed the support of the laborers and farmers who had voted for Jackson. A log cabin was their symbol to show that Harrison was a man of the people. Their campaign slogan was Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too, because Harrison gained fame in the Battle of Tippecanoe, defeating Tecumsehs followers. The Whigs Come to Power (cont.) (page 351)

40 Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. William Henry Harrison became the first Whig president. He died in office four weeks later of pneumonia. The Whigs Come to Power (cont.) (page 351)

41 Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John Tyler became the president. Although winning the election as a Whig, he had once been a Democrat. As president he was a strong supporter of states rights and vetoed some bills sponsored by the Whigs. Many members of his cabinet resigned. The Whigs expelled him from the party due to his disloyalty. The Whigs Come to Power (cont.) (page 351)


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