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The Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams was elected president in 

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1 The Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams was elected president in  William Crawford, Andrew Jackson, and Henry Clay were the other Republican Party candidates.  No candidate received a majority of the electoral votes, so the House of Representatives selected the president. (pages 334–335) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

2 The Election of 1824 (cont.) Clay and Adams struck a deal. 
Clay agreed to use his influence as speaker of the house to defeat Jackson, hoping to gain the secretary of state post in return.  Adams did name Clay as secretary of state.  Andrew Jackson’s followers accused the two men of making a corrupt bargain and stealing the election. (pages 334–335) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

3 The Election of 1824 (cont.) During the Adams presidency, his policies ran against popular opinion.  He wanted a stronger navy, scientific expeditions supported by government funds, and direct federal involvement in economic growth.  Congress turned down many of his proposals.  Some members of Congress wanted a more limited role for the federal government. (pages 334–335) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

4 The Election of 1828 The election was a vicious campaign between Jackson and Adams.  The party divided into two: the Democratic-Republicans nominated Jackson, and the National Republicans nominated Adams.  Democratic-Republicans favored states’ rights. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

5 The Election of 1828 (cont.) New elements were introduced in the 1828 election, and many became a permanent part of election campaigns.  Mudslinging, or attempts to ruin the opponent with insults  Election slogans, rallies, buttons, and campaign events (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

6 The Election of 1828 (cont.) Jackson won the election in a landslide.  He received the most votes of the new frontier states and many votes in the South.  John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, who had served as Adams’s vice president, switched parties to run with Jackson. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

7 Jackson as President Jackson was an American success story. 
He went from being a member of a poor farm family to being a war hero to becoming the president of the United States. (pages 336–337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

8 Jackson as President (cont.)
Democracy broadened under Jackson.  He promised “equal protection and equal benefits” for all Americans, at least for white American men.  Between 1824 and 1828, the percentage of white voting males in presidential elections increased from 36.9 to 57.6 percent.  The right to vote, or suffrage, continued to expand for white men.  In 1840 more than 80 percent of white males voted in the presidential election. (pages 336–337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

9 Jackson as President (cont.)
By 1828 state constitutions changed to allow people, not state legislatures, to choose presidential electors. (pages 336–337) Section 1-15

10 Jackson as President (cont.)
Jackson instituted the spoils system.  He replaced government employees with his supporters.  The fired workers were angry and protested.  Jackson felt that a new group of employees would be good for democracy. (pages 336–337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

11 Jackson as President (cont.)
Jackson’s supporters made the political system more democratic by abandoning the caucus system and replacing it with nominating conventions.  Instead of major political candidates being chosen by committees of members of Congress, state delegates would select the party’s presidential candidate.  More people could now participate in the selection process. (pages 336–337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-17

12 Jackson as President (cont.)
The first national party convention for the Democrats was in Baltimore, Maryland, in  The convention drew delegates from each state that would nominate a candidate receiving two-thirds of the vote.  Jackson was nominated. (pages 336–337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-18

13 The Tariff Debate In 1828 Congress passed a very high tariff on goods imported from Europe.  This tariff made European goods more expensive.  Manufacturers in the United States, especially the Northeast, were happy because they thought Americans would now be even more likely to buy American-made products. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-20

14 The Tariff Debate (cont.)
Southerners hated the tariff and protested because they traded their cotton with Europe for manufactured goods.  Now they would have to pay more for these items. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-21

15 The Tariff Debate (cont.)
Some Southerners called for the Southern states to secede, or break away and form their own government.  John C. Calhoun, a believer in states’ rights, argued for nullification, or canceling a federal law it considered unconstitutional, and for secession.  He said that states have rights and powers independent of the federal government, that states had created the federal government, and they should be able to have the last word on decisions affecting them. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-22

16 The Tariff Debate (cont.)
The Webster-Hayne Debate was a response to these issues.  In January 1830, Senator Daniel Webster challenged the speech given by Robert Hayne, a senator from South Carolina who defended the right of states to nullify acts of the federal government and to secede.  Webster defended the Constitution and the Union arguing that nullification would cause the end of the Union. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-23

17 The Tariff Debate (cont.)
Jackson defended the Union, saying it must be preserved.  Vice President Calhoun was shocked.  When he won election to the Senate in December 1832, he resigned as vice president. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-24

18 The Tariff Debate (cont.)
The nullification crisis grew, and the threat of the Union splitting apart intensified.  In 1832 Congress passed a new, lower tariff, hoping that the Southern protest would die down. But it did not.  South Carolina’s state legislature passed the Nullification Act, saying that it would not pay the “illegal” tariffs of 1828 and  The South Carolina legislature threatened to secede if the federal government interfered. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-25

19 The Tariff Debate (cont.)
Jackson supported a compromise bill by Clay, lowering the tariff.  He also made sure that the South would accept it.  He persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill, which allowed the president to use the United States military to enforce acts of Congress. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-26

20 The Tariff Debate (cont.)
South Carolina accepted the compromise tariff and state leaders voted to put aside the Nullification Act.  The crisis between a state and the federal government was over for the time being. (pages 338–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-27

21 Moving Native Americans
President Andrew Jackson supported relocating Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi River.  Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in  The federal government paid Native Americans to move west. (pages 341–344) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

22 Moving Native Americans (cont.)
Jackson also sent officials to negotiate treaties with the southeastern Native Americans.  In 1834 Congress created the Indian Territory (a region in present-day Oklahoma) for Native Americans from the southeast. (pages 341–344) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

23 Moving Native Americans (cont.)
The Cherokee Nation refused to give up its land in Georgia.  Treaties of the 1790s recognized the Cherokee people as a separate nation with their own laws, but Georgia did not recognize the Cherokee laws.  In the Supreme Court case Worcester v. Georgia in 1832, the Cherokee sued the state.  Chief Justice Marshall ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee. (pages 341–344) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

24 Moving Native Americans (cont.)
Further, the Court stated that only the federal government had authority over matters involving the Cherokee.  President Jackson disagreed and supported Georgia’s efforts to remove the Cherokee. (pages 341–344) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

25 Moving Native Americans (cont.)
In 1832 a few Cherokee signed a treaty giving up their land, but most of the 17,000 Cherokee refused to honor it.  General Winfield Scott and an army of 7,000 federal troops came to remove the Cherokee and threatened force if they did not leave.  The long Cherokee march west began and became known as the Trail of Tears, the trail along which they cried. (pages 341–344) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-9

26 Native American Resistance
Black Hawk led a group of Sauk and Fox people back to Illinois in 1832 to recapture the land given up in a treaty.  State and federal troops used force to chase them into the Mississippi River and slaughtered most of the Native Americans as they tried to flee westward into present-day Iowa.  The troops killed hundreds. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

27 Native American Resistance (cont.)
The Seminole people of Florida successfully resisted removal.  They went to war instead.  In 1835 the Seminole and a group of African Americans together attacked white settlements along the Florida coast.  They used guerrilla tactics successfully against the American soldiers.  By 1842 more than 1,500 American soldiers had died. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

28 Native American Resistance (cont.)
The government finally gave up and let some of the Seminole remain in Florida.  However, many of them had died in the long war, and many were captured and forced to move west. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

29 Native American Resistance (cont.)
Only a few scattered groups of Native Americans lived east of the Mississippi River after  Most had been removed from their lands.  They gave up more than 100 million acres east of the Mississippi and received about $68 million and 32 million acres of land west of the Mississippi.  They lived in reservations, divided by nations. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

30 War Against the Bank President Jackson challenged the Bank of the United States.  He attacked it for being an organization of the wealthy in which the people had no control.  Private bankers ran the Bank even though it was chartered, or given a government permit, to operate by the federal government. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

31 War Against the Bank (cont.)
In 1832 Nicholas Biddle, the Bank’s president, applied early for a new charter even though the charter was good until  Senators Clay and Webster, friends of Biddle, used the Bank as a ploy to try to defeat Jackson and allow Clay to become president in  They figured that Jackson would veto the charter and lose support.  Jackson did veto the bill and denounced the Bank for not caring about the poor, only the wealthy. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

32 War Against the Bank (cont.)
In the 1832 presidential election, many people supported Jackson’s veto of the Bank charter.  He was reelected, receiving 219 electoral votes to Clay’s 49.  Martin Van Buren was elected vice president. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-7

33 War Against the Bank (cont.)
Jackson decided on a plan to “kill” the Bank after he was reelected.  He ordered the withdrawal of all government deposits from the Bank and placed them in smaller state banks.  In 1836 Biddle refused to sign a new charter for the Bank, and it closed. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-8

34 War Against the Bank (cont.)
Jackson did not run for a third term.  The Democrats selected Martin Van Buren, who faced opposition from the Whigs, a new political party that included former National Republicans and others opposed to Jackson.  Van Buren easily defeated his Whig opponents and became president. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

35 War Against the Bank (cont.)
The Panic of 1837 hit right after Van Buren took office.  Land values dropped, investments suddenly fell off, and banks failed.  People lost confidence.  The panic led into a recession that lasted for about six years. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

36 War Against the Bank (cont.)
During the depression, thousands of businesses closed and hundreds of thousands of people lost jobs.  Prices rose so high that people could hardly afford their basic needs.  Van Buren believed in laissez-faire, or the principle that the government should not involve itself in the nation’s economy, so he did little to help the economic problems. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

37 War Against the Bank (cont.)
The situation worsened and the administration did take a few steps although they had little effect on the crisis.  The depression turned all the Jackson supporters against his friend and colleague President Van Buren. (pages 348–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

38 The Whigs Come to Power Democratic presidents had been in office for 12 years.  Now the Whigs thought it was time to win the 1840 election.  They nominated William Henry Harrison, a War of 1812 hero, like Jackson.  John Tyler was Harrison’s running mate.  The Democrats nominated Van Buren. (page 351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

39 The Whigs Come to Power (cont.)
The Whigs needed the support of the laborers and farmers who had voted for Jackson.  A log cabin was their symbol to show that Harrison was “a man of the people.”  Their campaign slogan was “Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too,” because Harrison gained fame in the Battle of Tippecanoe, defeating Tecumseh’s followers. (page 351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-16

40 The Whigs Come to Power (cont.)
William Henry Harrison became the first Whig president.  He died in office four weeks later of pneumonia. (page 351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-17

41 The Whigs Come to Power (cont.)
John Tyler became the president.  Although winning the election as a Whig, he had once been a Democrat.  As president he was a strong supporter of states’ rights and vetoed some bills sponsored by the Whigs.  Many members of his cabinet resigned.  The Whigs expelled him from the party due to his disloyalty. (page 351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-18


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