Fig RESULTS 12 3 Extracted sap from tobacco plant with tobacco mosaic disease Passed sap through a porcelain filter known to trap bacteria Rubbed filtered sap on healthy tobacco plants 4 Healthy plants became infected
Transcription and manufacture of capsid proteins Self-assembly of new virus particles and their exit from the cell Entry and uncoating Fig VIRUS DNA Capsid 4 Replication HOST CELL Viral DNA mRNA Capsid proteins Viral DNA
Fig Phage DNA Phage The phage injects its DNA. Bacterial chromosome Phage DNA circularizes. Daughter cell with prophage Occasionally, a prophage exits the bacterial chromosome, initiating a lytic cycle. Cell divisions produce population of bacteria infected with the prophage. The cell lyses, releasing phages. Lytic cycle is induced or Lysogenic cycle is entered Lysogenic cycle Prophage The bacterium reproduces, copying the prophage and transmitting it to daughter cells. Phage DNA integrates into the bacterial chromosome, becoming a prophage. New phage DNA and proteins are synthesized and assembled into phages.
Fig Glycoprotein Viral envelope Capsid RNA (two identical strands) Reverse transcriptase HIV Membrane of white blood cell HIV entering a cell 0.25 µm Viral RNA RNA-DNA hybrid HOST CELL Reverse transcriptase DNA NUCLEUS Provirus Chromosomal DNA RNA genome for the next viral generation mRNA New virus New HIV leaving a cell
Fig. 19-8a Glycoprotein Reverse transcriptase HIV RNA (two identical strands) Capsid Viral envelope HOST CELL Reverse transcriptase Viral RNA RNA-DNA hybrid DNA NUCLEUS Provirus Chromosomal DNA RNA genome for the next viral generation mRNA New virus
Fig. 19-8b HIV Membrane of white blood cell HIV entering a cell 0.25 µm New HIV leaving a cell