Beginnings –1–1050s – 1090s – Turks invaded Byzantine Empire; overran most Byzantine lands and Palestine (Holy Land) –1–1095 – Byzantine Emperor asked pope for help in driving Muslim Turks out –C–Christians called Palestine “Holy Land” because Christ lived/taught there –M–Muslims and Jews also considered land sacred –C–Christians who answered pope’s call were called Crusaders –M–Men and women from all over W. Europe left homes to reclaim Holy Land; many never returned; was even a children’s crusade (1212)
Causes of the Crusades –Pope believed Crusades would increase his power in Europe –Christians believed sins would be forgiven if participated –Nobles hoped to gain wealth and land by participating –Adventurers saw Crusades as a chance for travel and excitement –Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression by fighting in Crusades
Effects of the Crusades –Crusaders failed to attain main goal of retaking Holy Land –Crusades left behind a legacy of religious hatred between Christians and Muslims – each group committed terrible acts of violence against the other –Crusaders sometimes turned their hatred on Jews in Europe (anti- Semitism) as they traveled to or from Palestine; Crusaders sometimes destroyed entire Jewish communities –Increased Trade - Crusaders returning to Europe brought back new fabrics, spices, perfumes, etc; Italian merchants built ships to transport Crusaders; after conflicts, ships available to carry products to and from Palestine; after fall of Christian states, Italian traders helped keep trade routes to Palestine open; sugar cotton, rice were just a few of the goods traded; commerce benefited economies of East and West –Growth of learning – Europeans saw how Byzantines and Muslims had preserved Greco-Roman learning and had great universities; were exposed to advances these cultures made in math, science, literature, art, and geography
Effects (cont’d) –Changes in Church – Crusades temporarily increased power of pope, but conflicts with monarchs eventually lessened his power; rift between Eastern and Western widened after Crusaders attack on Constantinople –Changes in Feudal System – Crusades increased power of monarchs, who had gained right to increase taxes in order to support fighting; some feudal monarchs led crusaders into battle thereby gaining power and respect; nobles power declined – some killed in battle, others lost fortunes paying for weapons and long voyage; serfs gained freedom – some by joining Crusades; others fled to cities; serfs earned money by selling surplus crops and began to pay lords in money – economy based on money, not land, took hold –Growth of Towns – expansion of trade encouraged rise of towns –Rise of Middle Class – new social class made up of master artisans, merchants, bankers, etc; acquired wealth and influence
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