Presentation on theme: "Post Classical Review 500 C.E. to 1000 C.E. Give or take a few."— Presentation transcript:
Post Classical Review 500 C.E. to 1000 C.E. Give or take a few.
World Religions Study pages 80-86 and pages 99-106 in your AP World history study guide, Five Steps to a Five. You will be asked questions on all of these world religions.
Byzantine Empire - Eastern Roman Empire Existed from 313 C.E. to 1453 C.E. Two reasons why it lasted so long: –Caesaropapism – the emperor was patriarch of Eastern Christian Church –The development of an elaborate government bureaucracy. The capital city, first known by the Greek name Byzantium was renamed Constantinople in 340 C.E. by the Roman Emperor Constantine.
Byzantine Empire - Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinian known for three things: –His wife Theodora, was his advisor with politics, diplomacy, and theology. –Rebuilding of Constantinople and construction of the Church of Hagia Sophia –Justinians Code: a law code that lasted throughout the empire and influenced western Europe as well.
Byzantine Economy and Society Constantinople was the largest city in Europe for nearly 800 years. The Byzantine empire served as the center of trade for western Eurasia working in direct commercial relationships with all of northern Europe.
Byzantine Empire – A Short History By the 8 th century, the Byzantines lost control of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and north Africa to Muslim conquest. Byzantine rulers reorganized through the theme system. Each imperial province, known as a theme, was under a general who recruited his army from the free peasants who were allotted land in exchange for services. In the 11 th century the theme system was corrupt, which resulted in rebellions again imperial power and reduced land available to free peasants. Constantinople fell in 1453 to the Ottoman Turks.
Byzantium Influence on Russia The city of Kiev was located on the trade route between Scandinavia and Byzantium. In 989, Prince Vladimir of Kiev and his subjects converted to Orthodox Christianity. This opened the doors for Byzantine influence throughout the realm. The Russian Orthodox Church was created by the princes who sought to establish their on caesaropapist positions. Moscow is sometimes called the third Rome.
Orthodox Christianity The philosophy and literature of classical Greece had a major influence on Christianity in Byzantium. By the mid-eleventh century, differences lead to a formal split between Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholic Christianity. (See pages 341-346, pages 317-318, and pages 458-463)
India – Islamic and Hindu Kingdoms After the fall of the Gupta in the 6 th century, India divided into many regional authorities, much like Europe after the fall of Rome. Between the 7 th and 12 th centuries, Muslims expanded their influence into northern India. Centering their government at Delhi, the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate extended their power by military conquest. They controleld India from 1206 to 1526.
India – Islamic and Hindu Kingdoms They were unsuccessful in achieving popularity as a whole in India due to their monotheistic beliefs. To some extent members of lower Hindu castes and untouchables found Islam appealing because of its accepting nature. The Delhi Sultanate failed to establish a strong administration, but it did introduce Islam to India, especially in the area that would later become Pakistan.
The Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India The southern 2/3 of India were small Hindu kingdoms, loosely held. There were two kingdoms who controlled larger portions of the south: –The Chola kingdom –The Kingdom of Vijayanagar
Islam in SE Asia Islam spread in SE Asia more through commercial contacts and conversion that from military victories. By the 8 th century, Muslim traders reached SE Asia. Islam did not gain widespread popularity among Buddhist areas of mainland SE Asia, the inhabitants of the islands of the Indian Ocean, were receptive to the new faith due to trading contacts. Hinduism and Buddhism remained popular with the island peoples of the Indian Ocean. Islam found a stronghold on the islands of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the southern Philippines.
The meeting of Hindu and Islamic Traditions Islamic armies destroyed large numbers of Buddhist sites in northern India so Hinduism benefitted from Buddhisms declining numbers. At first, outside of coastal trading cities, Islam remained mainly a religion of the conquerors. During the 12 th century, the bhakti movement in southern India attempted to blend the two. It encouraged traditional Hindu faith but focused on monotheism and equality found in Islam.
Influence of Indian Society in SE Asia In 100 CE, Indian merchants were a common sight in SE Asia. Rulers adopted Indian traditions while retaining many of their own and often sponsored Hinduism or Buddhism in their kingdoms. Large Hindu and Buddhist temple complexes such as Angkor Wat were built but the people often worshipped their native deities as well.
Also Study: Chapters 10, 11, and 12 in your Five Steps to a Five. Review your text for interactions between religions, particularly Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam. Know key terms, including individuals, in Chapters 14, 15, and 16. Chapter 17 is not on this test.
Mamluk Dynasties Islam spread in SE Asia more through commercial contacts and conversion that from military victories. By the 8 th century, Muslim traders reached SE Asia. Islam did not gain widespread popularity among Buddhist areas of mainland SE Asia, the inhabitants of the islands of the Indian Ocean, were receptive to the new faith due to trading contacts. Hinduism and Buddhism remained popular with the island peoples of the Indian Ocean. Islam found a stronghold on the islands of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the southern Phillippines.