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Next Generation Content Area Reading – Professional Development (NGCAR-PD) Text Structure Instruction 1 Welcome! Find your nametag at your new content.

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Presentation on theme: "Next Generation Content Area Reading – Professional Development (NGCAR-PD) Text Structure Instruction 1 Welcome! Find your nametag at your new content."— Presentation transcript:

1 Next Generation Content Area Reading – Professional Development (NGCAR-PD) Text Structure Instruction 1 Welcome! Find your nametag at your new content table. You will get a chance to introduce yourself very soon.

2 We react to text structures daily When a book gets boring, I skip to the dialogue. I can tell if its really fruit juice by reading the first ingredient on the label. Unlike most text, the main idea (question or task) of a math word problem is usually at the end. A quick glance at a graph should look at the axes and any extreme peaks or drops. I can get almost all the basics from the first paragraph of a news article. 2

3 Round Robin Think Time: What text structures did you encounter when studying your content in college? What text structures do you encounter when preparing your lessons? Are there any shortcuts or tricks to reading those particular types of texts? 3

4 Round Robin Share Time (About 1 Minute Each): Introduce yourself. Talk about 1 text structure and a trick/short cut. 4

5 1 Minute Each Introduction Text Structure Tip/Shortcut

6 What Strategies Should Be Taught? In its review of more than 200 such studies, the National Reading Panel (2000) concluded that of the 16 categories of strategy instruction surveyed, seven appeared to have a firm scientific basis for concluding that they improve comprehension in normal readers (p. 4-42). Among these strategies are comprehension monitoring, using graphic and semantic organizers, using the structure of stories/texts, answering questions, generating questions, and summarizing. 6

7 Research suggests that: Teaching generic reading comprehension strategies does have merit However, sole emphasis on generic comprehension strategies may lead students to believe that all academic texts are more or less the same Not all literacy skills can be transferred easily from one content area to another What Strategies Should Be Taught? Heller, R. & Greenleaf, C. (2007). Literacy Instruction in the Content Areas 7

8 Elements of Instruction Multiple Strategy Instruction Text Structure Instruction Questioning Instruction Summarizing Instruction Building Reader Understandings Students knowledge & skill in text structure is a foundation for other strategies. Handout 1 8

9 Text Structure How text is organized Expository (organizational patterns) Narrative (story grammar) Understanding text structure facilitates: Form expectations Organize incoming information Judge relative importance Improve comprehension Enhance recall 9 Handout 2

10 Nonfiction Text Features Tables Graphs Diagrams Maps Cartoons Photographs & captions Tables of contents Graphic captions Glossaries Indexes 10

11 Text Structure Different types of informational text: Expository Argumentation Persuasive Procedural Narrative text: Literary Common expository organizational patterns: Compare/contrast Sequence Description Cause/effect Problem-solution Literary: story grammar Characters Setting Plot major events problem solution 11

12 Signal Words and Phrases DescriptionSequenceCompare/ContrastCause/EffectProblem/Solution ComparisonContrast to begin with an example for instance to illustrate such as characteristics are specifically looks like appears to be position words s such as between, across, behind description words such as beautiful, interesting first second third then always now initially before preceding when next after afterwards not long after soon soon after earlier later during meanwhile alike same as similarly similar to likewise additionally in addition to like neither/nor comparison as well as both in common in contrast by contrast different from difference unlike however rather than instead instead of yet but nevertheless as opposed to although as opposed to compared to even though either/or still otherwise since so so that so due to because why then when …then if...then this led to impact accordingly therefore thus reasons why for this reason in order to effects of is caused by consequently the problem is.. the dilemma is … one answer is… one reason for … one idea question the solution is … to solve this.. the result resolved resolution 12 Handout 3

13 What type of text structure? Description Sequence Compare and/or Contrast Cause/Effect Problem/Solution SAMPLE TEXT Charles commenced his reign in He continued to reign about twenty-four years. It will assist the reader to receive and retain in mind a clear idea of the course of events during his reign, if we regard it as divided into three periods. During the first, which continued about four years, Charles and the Parliament were both upon the stage, contending with each other, but just at open war. Each party intrigued, and maneuvered, and struggled to gain its own ends, the disagreement widening and deepening continually, till it ended in an open rupture, when Charles abandoned the plan of having Parliaments at all, and attempted to govern alone. This attempt to manage the empire without a legislature lasted for ten years, and is the second period. After this a Parliament was called, and it soon made itself independent of the king, and became hostile to him, the two powers being at open war. This constitutes the third period. Thus we have four years spent in getting into the quarrel between the king and Parliament, ten years in an attempt by the king to govern alone, and, finally, ten years of war, more or less open, the king on one side, and the Parliament on the other. Directions: Read text Highlight significant words as you read to contrast: signal words that connect ideas across text. description words that are significant to the topic of the text. 13 Handout 3

14 What type of text structure? Description Sequence Compare and/or Contrast Cause/Effect Problem/Solution SAMPLE TEXT It seemed clear to the educated, upper-class colonists that something needed to be done to persuade the lower class to join the revolutionary cause, to direct their anger against England. The solution was to find language inspiring to all classes, specific enough in its listing of grievances to fill people with anger against the British, vague enough to avoid class conflict, and stirring enough to build patriotic feelings. Everything the Declaration of Independence was about – popular control over governments, the right of rebellion and revolution, fury at political tyranny, economic burdens, and military attacks – was well suited to unite large numbers of colonists and persuade even those who had grievances against one another to turn against England. Directions: Read text Highlight significant words as you read to contrast: signal words that connect ideas across text. description words that are significant to the topic of the text. 14 Handout 3

15 Variation in Text Complexity Level of Text Complexity Text FeatureEasyMore ChallengingComplex Text Structure How the text is organized & how it progresses SimpleMore involvedElaborate Very ConventionalSomewhat conventionalUnconventional Reading passages increase in complexity when they: have a second text structure within a primary text structure. switch across multiple text structures throughout. 15

16 Text Structure Complexity Passage with Complex Text Structure About fifty miles northwest of Cusco, Peru, is one of the seven wonders of the world -- Machu Picchu. This ancient city of the Incan Empire with its Temple of the Sun towers high above the Urubamba River Valley, the Sacred Valley of the Incas. The Intihuatana stone pointing toward the sun and the surrounding dry-stone buildings made of ashlars block attest to their masonry skill. In March of 2011, I was on my way to see this relic of wonder. The trains initial ascent whisked us past Spanish conquests through the foothills of the Andes. Then, as we climbed to higher elevations, numerous Inca fortresses could be seen, peeking out from rugged mountains cliffs. By the time the tracks came to a faltering halt, I soon experienced the first challenge of my journey – breathing. 16 Would you consider this text easy, moderate, or complex? How many text structures are in this text sample? What are the text structures?

17 Sequence Instruction – Explicit Delivery Enlarge the passage for all students to see. Read the passage aloud and highlight significant/relevant signal words/phrases while reading. During instruction, conduct a think-aloud to show the thinking process behind identifying signal words. Next, use highlighted signal words /phrases to model how to organize text information using a graphic organizer Draft a passage summary using information from the graphic organizer. Generate questions that match the text structure. Post everything as a set for future reference: Enlarged passage with highlighted signal words/phrases Completed graphic organizer Summary statement Questions 17

18 Practice Recognizing Text Structures Text Structure Graphic Organizer Activity Purpose of text structure graphic organizers Explanation of classroom lesson Discussion of possible lesson extensions and modifications 18

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21 Text Structure Writing Frames Compare and Contrast Paragraph There are several differences between ______________ and They. In contrast to, has. Unlike _____, does not. On the other hand,. Problem/Solution Paragraph ______________present(s) a dilemma that is___________. The problem is. This has occurred because A resolution is/was possible. To solve it/this, it will be/has been necessary to _____________________________ ________________________________________________ The solution(s) include(s)__________________________________. Writing Frames Writing frames are instructional support tools Guide the writer toward constructing a paragraph with a specific text structure. Write relevant content-area information in the blanks. Refer to a list of signal words and phrases for the target text structure for more writing options 21

22 Articles Organized by Text Structure 22 problem-solution-common-text-types-in-the-times/

23 Summarizing using Text Structure If your group has more than three, double up on section(s). Read and summarize your sections. When EVERYONE is finished, share your summary with your group. Discuss the DQs! 23


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