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Comprehension Text Structure Instruction Welcome!

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1 Comprehension Text Structure Instruction Welcome!
Find your nametag at your new content table. You will get a chance to introduce yourself very soon. Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Let participants know that this sub-section on text structure instruction (5a.2) builds upon information from previous sections of the Comprehension Unit. NOTE: For this section (5a.2), it will be important for participants to bring texts that they use in their instruction. Next Generation Content Area Reading – Professional Development (NGCAR-PD)

2 We react to text structures daily
When a book gets boring, I skip to the dialogue. I can tell if it’s really “fruit” juice by reading the first ingredient on the label. Unlike most text, the main idea (question or task) of a math word problem is usually at the end. A quick glance at a graph should look at the axes and any extreme peaks or drops. I can get almost all the basics from the first paragraph of a news article.

3 Round Robin Think Time:
What text structures did you encounter when studying your content in college? What text structures do you encounter when preparing your lessons? Are there any shortcuts or tricks to reading those particular types of texts?

4 Round Robin Share Time (About 1 Minute Each): Introduce yourself.
Talk about 1 text structure and a trick/short cut.

5 1 Minute Each Introduction Text Structure Tip/Shortcut
Using this PowerPoint break timer This PowerPoint slide uses images, custom animation, and timing to provide a countdown timer that you can use in any presentation. When you open the template, you’ll notice that the timer is set at 00:00. However, when you start the slide show, the timer will start at the correct time and count down by 1-minute intervals until it gets to 1 minute. At that point, it will count down in two 30-seconds intervals to 00:00. To insert this slide into your presentation Save this template as a presentation (.ppt file) on your computer. Open the presentation that will contain the timer. On the Slides tab, place your insertion point after the slide that will precede the timer. (Make sure you don't select a slide. Your insertion point should be between the slides.) On the Insert menu, click Slides from Files. In the Slide Finder dialog box, click the Find Presentation tab. Click Browse, locate and select the timer presentation, and then click Open. In the Slides from Files dialog box, select the timer slide. Select the Keep source formatting check box. If you do not select this check box, the copied slide will inherit the design of the slide that precedes it in the presentation. Click Insert. Click Close.

6 What Strategies Should Be Taught?
In its review of more than 200 such studies, the National Reading Panel (2000) concluded that of the 16 categories of strategy instruction surveyed, seven appeared to have a firm scientific basis “for concluding that they improve comprehension in normal readers” (p. 4-42). Among these strategies are comprehension monitoring, using graphic and semantic organizers, using the structure of stories/texts, answering questions, generating questions, and summarizing. Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slide 3 (10 minutes) Before participants begin their journey in learning specific comprehension strategies, quickly review the following information: Converging research findings have informed of: Instructional delivery – that instruction that introduces new concepts or skills need to be delivered in an explicit way so that thinking is made visible Instructional tools – using graphic organizers is one way to make thinking visible, and students can also see how to organize their thinking before, during, and after they read reading comprehension strategies – some strategies are more effective than others role of the reader – students need increased engagement in text-reading Point out to participants the slide information in bold print. Explain that the Interactive Process section will: focus on those strategies that have been proven to be most effective. begin with text structure instruction because the most effective strategies rely upon this information. 6

7 What Strategies Should Be Taught?
Research suggests that: Teaching generic reading comprehension strategies does have merit However, sole emphasis on generic comprehension strategies may lead students to believe that all academic texts are more or less the same Not all literacy skills can be transferred easily from one content area to another Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Research also indicates that generic strategies are definitely beneficial; however, the literacy processes within each discipline are entirely different. Specific to each discipline, there are different: sets of knowledge skills reasoning Provide participants with the following information about: Generic comprehension strategies: Applying generic comprehension strategies to different types of texts does not generate competence across the content areas. Overuse of a generic approach to comprehension strategies can cause students to over-generalize their benefits in the different content-area classes. A strategic approach to strategies is beneficial: Those generic research-based strategies that are essential in all content areas are the strategies incorporated into the NGCAR-PD How this core set of strategies is applied varies: across texts (even within the same content area) across content areas The NGCAR-PD has incorporated the strategic approach to strategies: It focuses on a core set of essential strategies The use of the strategies is discipline-specific Heller, R. & Greenleaf, C. (2007). Literacy Instruction in the Content Areas 7

8 Elements of Instruction
Multiple Strategy Instruction Text Structure Instruction Questioning Instruction Summarizing Instruction Students’ knowledge & skill in text structure is a foundation for other strategies. Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slide 5 (10 minutes) Participants begin focusing on instructional strategies that build reader understandings. The first instructional strategy introduced is text structure instruction. With a partner, have participants locate the overview for this sub-section (5a.2), Handout 1 -Overview of Text Structure Instruction. have them reflect upon the previous slide information as well as read to discuss the overview information. provide sticky notes for the partners to generate and post questions about text structure instruction on the large Elements of Instruction display board in the appropriate category. Facilitate a brief discussion in large group for partners to debrief, sharing the highlights of their discussion as well as questions they generated. As facilitator: record the most relevant and significant participant comments on large chart paper. read the most significant questions to the group. NOTE: During discussion, highlight the need for readers to have basic text understandings, and inform them that text structure instruction supports that. Handout 1 Building Reader Understandings

9 Text Structure Understanding text structure facilitates:
How text is organized Expository (organizational patterns) Narrative (story grammar) Understanding text structure facilitates: Form expectations Organize incoming information Judge relative importance Improve comprehension Enhance recall Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slide 6 (10 minutes) Information on this slide is review. Briefly remind participants that text structure refers to the pattern of organization that the author uses in text. The general genres of expository and narrative texts are very different from one another. Reader knowledge in the differences between text structures is an important foundation of other strategies: as students learn/apply their knowledge of text structure, they approach the task of summarizing expository text differently from that of literary text. readers can organize their thinking as they read because they recognize and use various organizational clues to their comprehension advantage. this results in better overall recall of what has been read. Have participants: locate and independently read the handout, Handout 2 - Strategies to Teach: Text Structure Instruction. next, have them discuss the article information with a partner. Afterwards, facilitate a brief discussion by having partners share the highlights of their discussion. Record most significant participant comments on large chart paper. As a facilitator, highlight that readers use their knowledge of text structure during the reading process to create a cohesive model of the author’s message in their minds. Handout 2

10 Nonfiction Text Features
Tables Graphs Diagrams Maps Cartoons Photographs & captions Tables of contents Graphic captions Glossaries Indexes Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slide 7 (5 minutes) The information on the slide contains a list of different types of text features. Explain to participants that it is important to keep in mind the differences between text structure and text features. Inform participants of the following additional information: Typically, expository texts include more text features than literary. The value of text features: Text features can be a type of clue for readers to notice the general organization of text. It is important that students are explicitly and systematically taught how to process the various text features. The Think-Aloud Lesson introduced in a previous NGCAR-PD section can be used to introduce: use of an unfamiliar form of text features. new concepts in a text. However, text features alone do not serve as strong enough clues for readers to identify and use the author’s pattern of thinking toward other tasks and strategies that lead to comprehension.

11 Text Structure Literary Expository Argumentation Persuasive Procedural
Literary: story grammar Characters Setting Plot major events problem solution Narrative text: Literary Different types of informational text: Expository Argumentation Persuasive Procedural Common expository organizational patterns: Compare/contrast Sequence Description Cause/effect Problem-solution Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slide 8 (5 minutes) Information on this slide is review. Quickly review the different types of text structure by pointing out: different patterns of text organization for both narrative and informational texts. informational texts (particularly expository) challenge readers the most expository text is typically written with greater density, containing: more complex concepts more complex sentence structure, more subtle signal words that provide clues to the reader about the organizational pattern of the text. The most common organizational patterns of expository text structures: Compare and contrast texts examine similarities and differences between two or more people, events, concepts, ideas, etc. Sequence texts feature a chronological order of events or steps of a process Description texts present detailed descriptions of facts, characteristics, or attributes. Cause and effect texts explain reasons why something happens and the result. Problem/solution texts describe and show the development of a problem and explains the solution. Tell participants that this session will focus on learning how to teach this information .

12 Signal Words and Phrases
Description Sequence Compare/Contrast Cause/Effect Problem/Solution Comparison Contrast to begin with an example for instance to illustrate such as characteristics are specifically looks like appears to be position words s such as between, across, behind description words such as beautiful, interesting first second third then always now initially before preceding when next after afterwards not long after soon soon after earlier later during meanwhile alike same as similarly similar to likewise additionally in addition to like neither/nor comparison as well as both in common in contrast by contrast different from difference unlike however rather than instead instead of yet but nevertheless as opposed to although compared to even though either/or still otherwise since so so that so due to because why when …then if...then this led to impact accordingly therefore thus reasons why for this reason in order to effects of is caused by consequently the problem is . . the dilemma is … one answer is… one reason for … one idea question the solution is … to solve this.. the result resolved resolution Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Inform participants that: there are ways for readers to identify different text structures. signal words are a very important way to do that. Define and clarify signal words and phrases: These are word or phrases that are found throughout a text that provide a signal or clue to the reader. These words/phrases connect important ideas together throughout the text. Collectively, they signal the reader of how the text is organized – its text structure. Have participants locate Handout 3, Signal Words and Phrases. Explain that: without knowledge of how to use these signals, readers can be lost as to: which words and ideas in text are important among the sea of words. the connection between many of the ideas in text how the text is organized which direction their thinking should go during the reading process. a reader’s ability to identify these signals during the reading process helps them to organize their thinking and grasp the author’s message. Ask participants to use the text materials that they use for content-area instruction to: locate significant/relevant signal words identify signal words most commonly used throughout their textbook. Afterwards, divide participants into content-area groups to discuss the results of their individual findings for their content-area across text materials. Then, facilitate a large group discussion and record significant findings across content areas. Handout 3 12

13 What type of text structure?
Description Sequence Compare and/or Contrast Cause/Effect Problem/Solution SAMPLE TEXT Charles commenced his reign in He continued to reign about twenty-four years. It will assist the reader to receive and retain in mind a clear idea of the course of events during his reign, if we regard it as divided into three periods. During the first, which continued about four years, Charles and the Parliament were both upon the stage, contending with each other, but just at open war. Each party intrigued, and maneuvered, and struggled to gain its own ends, the disagreement widening and deepening continually, till it ended in an open rupture, when Charles abandoned the plan of having Parliaments at all, and attempted to govern alone. This attempt to manage the empire without a legislature lasted for ten years, and is the second period. After this a Parliament was called, and it soon made itself independent of the king, and became hostile to him, the two powers being at open war. This constitutes the third period. Thus we have four years spent in getting into the quarrel between the king and Parliament, ten years in an attempt by the king to govern alone, and, finally, ten years of war, more or less open, the king on one side, and the Parliament on the other. Directions: Read text Highlight significant words as you read to contrast: signal words that connect ideas across text. description words that are significant to the topic of the text. Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Participants continue to identify text structure of sample texts using Handout 3, Signal Words and Phrases. Have participants take a moment to briefly read through the sample text. Then, as facilitator: read the sample text aloud, highlighting significant signal words as you read: yellow highlighting identifies: the signal words that connect ideas across text reveal the type of relationship between those ideas (sequence) green highlighting identifies words that confirm the sequential relationships that relate to the topic of the text. when finished reading and highlighting, present the slide directions in the blue box to participants. Have participants work with a partner to: identify and mark on their charts any signal words highlighted on the slide. identify the text structure using the chart information. NOTE: The text structure of this text sample is sequence. This text is an excerpt from a book written by Jacob Abbott, Charles I, Makers of History. Jacob Abbott lived from Handout 3

14 What type of text structure?
Description Sequence Compare and/or Contrast Cause/Effect Problem/Solution SAMPLE TEXT It seemed clear to the educated, upper-class colonists that something needed to be done to persuade the lower class to join the revolutionary cause, to direct their anger against England. The solution was to find language inspiring to all classes, specific enough in its listing of grievances to fill people with anger against the British, vague enough to avoid class conflict, and stirring enough to build patriotic feelings. Everything the Declaration of Independence was about – popular control over governments, the right of rebellion and revolution, fury at political tyranny, economic burdens, and military attacks – was well suited to unite large numbers of colonists and persuade even those who had grievances against one another to turn against England. Directions: Read text Highlight significant words as you read to contrast: signal words that connect ideas across text. description words that are significant to the topic of the text. Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Participants continue to identify text structure of sample texts using Handout 3, Signal Words and Phrases. Have participants take a moment to briefly read through the sample text. Then, as facilitator: read the sample text aloud, highlighting significant signal words as you read: yellow highlighting identifies: the signal words that connect ideas across text reveal the type of relationship between those ideas (problem and solution) green highlighting identifies words that confirm the problem/solution relationships that relate to the topic of the text. when finished reading and highlighting, present the slide directions in the blue box to participants. Have participants work with a partner to: identify and mark on their charts any signal words highlighted on the slide. identify the text structure using the chart information. NOTE: The text structure of this text sample is problem/solution. This text is an excerpt from a 1967 book written by historian Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Handout 3

15 Variation in Text Complexity
Level of Text Complexity Text Feature Easy More Challenging Complex Text Structure How the text is organized & how it progresses Simple More involved Elaborate Very Conventional Somewhat conventional Unconventional Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slides (10 minutes) Explain to participants that the chart on this slide is the top section of the Text Complexity Rubric that they had worked with in Section 4 of the Comprehension Unit. Remind them that text structure is one of the variables that can increase text complexity. Passages that have more than one text structure increases the text complexity. For instance: a passage with a description test structure may also have a second text structure such as sequence. a passage may switch from one text structure to another throughout the text. Reading passages increase in complexity when they: have a second text structure within a primary text structure. switch across multiple text structures throughout.

16 Text Structure Complexity
Passage with Complex Text Structure About fifty miles northwest of Cusco, Peru, is one of the seven wonders of the world -- Machu Picchu. This ancient city of the Incan Empire with its Temple of the Sun towers high above the Urubamba River Valley, the Sacred Valley of the Incas. The Intihuatana stone pointing toward the sun and the surrounding dry-stone buildings made of ashlars block attest to their masonry skill. In March of 2011, I was on my way to see this relic of wonder. The train’s initial ascent whisked us past Spanish conquests through the foothills of the Andes. Then, as we climbed to higher elevations, numerous Inca fortresses could be seen, peeking out from rugged mountains cliffs. By the time the tracks came to a faltering halt, I soon experienced the first challenge of my journey – breathing. Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction The text on the slide shows illustrates increased complexity. Have participants independently read through the passage. Then ask them the following questions (and have them explain their response): Would you consider this text easy, moderate, or complex? How many text structures are in this text sample? What are the text structures? Explain to participants that it is important to be cognizant of the level of complexity when providing text structure instruction. Using this text sample to illustrate, text structure instruction would be different from previous instructional examples in the following ways: it would include the use of two graphic organizers, one for each text structure (description, sequence) it would include a summary statement that could be handled in different ways, depending upon the needs of the students: More student support: one summary per paragraph and one final summary of both paragraphs together. Less student support: one final summary for both paragraphs together. NOTE: The answers to the questions above include: The text is not easy; it has a more moderate level of complexity because the text has more than one text structure. This text contains two text structures: Paragraph 1 – description text structure Paragraph 2 – sequence text structure Would you consider this text easy, moderate, or complex? How many text structures are in this text sample? What are the text structures?

17 Sequence Instruction – Explicit Delivery
Enlarge the passage for all students to see. Read the passage aloud and highlight significant/relevant signal words/phrases while reading. During instruction, conduct a think-aloud to show the thinking process behind identifying signal words. Next, use highlighted signal words /phrases to model how to organize text information using a graphic organizer Draft a passage summary using information from the graphic organizer. Generate questions that match the text structure. Post everything as a set for future reference: Enlarged passage with highlighted signal words/phrases Completed graphic organizer Summary statement Questions Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slide 30 (10 minutes) Before going over the steps of text structure instruction: explain to participants that students will need to receive text structure instruction when a passage has a text structure that is unfamiliar to them. have participants use Handout 6 -Text Structure Instruction Chart, to reflect upon what processes were used to introduce text structure instruction to them so far. Mention to participants that teacher modeling in identifying text structure is an important part of learning comprehension skills. Teacher think-aloud is a helpful part of this process. Show and explain the steps of text structure instruction. (NOTE: A plan to demonstrate a model text structure instruction using these steps is described in the Facilitator Notes for this slide.) With a partner, have participants draft a list of the necessary preparations for text structure instruction. Afterwards, facilitate a large group discussion by having partners share items from their preparation list. Record the most significant/relevant comments on large chart paper. During discussion, listen for participant comments or provide input for the following items: select a short passage with the text structure that has been targeted for instruction select a graphic organizer that matches the organizational design of the targeted text structure identify significant/relevant signal words from text and coordinate the read aloud with the highlighting process decide how to display the passage decide what materials will be used to highlight/identify signal words in text preplan the written summary of the passage preplan questions that match the text structure NOTE: Highlighting is a very efficient way to identify relevant signal words as part of a think-aloud process. Consistency in modeling the identification of signal words minimizes student confusion. Consistent color-coding and use of materials is part of the consistency.

18 Practice Recognizing Text Structures
Text Structure Graphic Organizer Activity Purpose of text structure graphic organizers Explanation of classroom lesson Discussion of possible lesson extensions and modifications Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction

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21 Text Structure Writing Frames
Writing frames are instructional support tools Guide the writer toward constructing a paragraph with a specific text structure. Write relevant content-area information in the blanks. Refer to a list of signal words and phrases for the target text structure for more writing options Compare and Contrast Paragraph There are several differences between ______________ and They In contrast to , has Unlike _____, does not On the other hand, Unit 4: Comprehension, Session 5a.2 – Text Structure Instruction Slide 31 (10 minutes) The slide contains writing frames for two of the five most common expository text structures. Ask participants to think about this question: What can be done if students need additional instruction in a particular text structure (i.e., compare/contrast or problem/solution) and you have run out of text with that text structure? Have participants locate Handout 7 -Text Structure Writing Frames. Explain that writing frames are instructional tools that teachers can use in several ways: to draft a content-area paragraph in order to have additional text with a particular text structure. Some text structures are more challenging to locate than others. Writing frames can be used to provide a way for teachers to generate more text for text structure instruction. to provide additional instructional support and reinforce student understanding of text structure. Writing is another way for students to learn and understand text structure. In order for students to use writing frames effectively, teachers will need to model how to draft a content-area passage using the writing frame before asking students to use them. With a partner, have participants practice orally using a writing frame on any topic. NOTE: Teachers can create their own writing frames using Handout 3 -Signal Words and Phrases, to provide additional instruction on a particular text structure. For texts particularly challenging to students, teachers can paraphrase the text to make it more comprehensible. Teachers can use the writing frames to: support their own paraphrasing efforts model for students how to use the writing frames as a paraphrasing tool have students use writing frames in small groups to paraphrase a complex text. Problem/Solution Paragraph ______________present(s) a dilemma that is___________. The problem is . This has occurred because A resolution is/was possible. To solve it/this, it will be/has been necessary to _____________________________ ________________________________________________ The solution(s) include(s)__________________________________.

22 Articles Organized by Text Structure

23 Summarizing using Text Structure
If your group has more than three, double up on section(s). Read and summarize your sections. When EVERYONE is finished, share your summary with your group. Discuss the “DQ”s!


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