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CSC350: Learning Management Systems COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (Virtual Campus)

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Presentation on theme: "CSC350: Learning Management Systems COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (Virtual Campus)"— Presentation transcript:

1 CSC350: Learning Management Systems COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (Virtual Campus)

2 Lecture # 13 Leadership 2

3 1.A fundamental understanding of influencing 2.Insights about emotional intelligence 3.An understanding of how communication works 4.Hints for communicating in organizations 5.Useful ideas for encouraging organizational communication Review of the Previous Lecture 3

4 1.A working definition of leadership 2.An understanding of early approaches to leadership 3.An appreciation for more recent approaches to leadership 4.Insights into how leaders should make decisions 5.Hints on how leaders change organizations 6.How leaders should coach 7.An appreciation for emerging leadership concepts Topics of Discussion 4

5 The process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of an objective Directing – causing individuals to act in a certain way or to follow a particular course of action Central theme is getting things accomplished through people DEFINING LEADERSHIP 5

6 Leader vs. Manager LEADERSHIP Subset of management Emphasizes behavioral issues Cares about and focuses on people doing the job Focuses on concern for workers as people MANAGEMENT Focuses on both nonbehavioral as well as behavioral issues Makes sure job gets done Focuses on organizational processes 6

7 Effective Managers are also Leaders 7

8 Trait Approach – Assumed leaders are born and not made – Described leaders based on a set of characteristics – Showed inconsistency – no one set of qualities or traits could be used to differentiate leaders from nonleaders EARLY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP 8

9 Intelligence Past achievement in scholarship & athletics Emotional maturity & stability Dependability, persistence, drive Social and adaptive skills Desire for status and socioeconomic position Common Leadership Traits 9

10 Behavioral Approach – Looked at what good leaders do – Leaders exhibit two types of behavior – Ohio State The OSU Studies – University of Michigan The Michigan Studies Early Approaches to Leadership 10

11 Structure Behavior – Establishing well-defined procedures followers will adhere to when performing their jobs Consideration Behavior – Developing and maintaining a good relationship between leader and follower – Reflects friendship, mutual trust, respect, warmth in leader/follower relationships The OSU Studies 11

12 The OSU Studies 12

13 Lore International Institute – Leaders need to demonstrate trustworthiness, honesty, and ability to collaborate – Trustworthiness is ruined when leaders’ behavior demonstrates they are: Credit Hogs Lone Rangers Egomaniacs Mules The OSU Studies 13

14 Job-Centered Behavior – Focus on work being done – Focus on how well subordinate is performing their job Employee-Centered Behavior – Focus on subordinates as people – Focus on personal needs of subordinates and building cooperative work teams The Michigan Studies 14

15 Both point to two primary dimensions of leader behavior: – Work Dimension Structure Behavior Job-Centered Behavior – People Dimension Consideration Behavior Employee-Centered Behavior Combining the Ohio State & Michigan Studies 15

16 Research shows: – Desirable leadership behavior is associated with strong leader emphasis on both structure and consideration – Undesirable leadership behavior is associated with weak leader emphasis on both dimensions Effectiveness of Leadership Styles 16

17 Leadership situations are varied Saying one style is most effective is oversimplification Leaders need to link leadership styles to appropriate situations Comparing Leadership Styles 17

18 Situational Approach Life Cycle Theory Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Path-Goal Theory MORE RECENT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP 18

19 Each instance of leadership is different and requires a unique combination of leaders, followers, and leadership situations SL=f(L, F, S) – SL = successful leadership – f = function of – L = leader – F = follower – S = situation Situational Approach to Leadership 19

20 Based on relationship that leadership style should reflect maturity level of the followers – Maturity – Ability of followers to perform their jobs independently, assume additional responsibilities, and desire to achieve success – The more of these attributes the followers possess, the more mature they are said to be – Manager’s leadership style is only effective if it is appropriate for the maturity level of the followers Life Cycle Theory of Leadership 20

21 Life Cycle Theory of Leadership 21

22 Proposed the solution for effective leadership is to change the organizational situation to fit the leader’s style Three primary factors: – Leader-Member Relations – Task Structure – Position Power Fiedler’s Contingency Theory 22

23 Fiedler Contingency Theory 23

24 Fiedler Contingency Theory 24

25 Basic premise: – Leader outlines goals for followers – Leader clears path that followers should take – Followers achieve goals and earn rewards contingent on doing so Managers can facilitate job performance by showing employees how their performance directly affects receiving desired results Path-Goal Theory of Leadership 25

26 Directive Behavior – Telling followers what to do and how to do it Supportive Behavior – Being friendly with followers and showing interest in them as human beings Path-Goal Theory of Leadership 26

27 Participative Behavior – Seek suggestions from followers regarding business operations to the extent followers are involved in making important organizational decisions Achievement Behavior – Setting challenging goals for followers to reach and expressing/demonstrating confidence they measure up to the challenge Path-Goal Theory of Leadership 27

28 Tannenbaum & Schmidt Leadership Continuum – One of the most quoted articles related to how leaders make decisions Managers are successful decision makers only if the method they use to make decisions appropriately reflects the leader, the follower, and the situation HOW LEADERS MAKE DECISIONS 28

29 Tannenbaum-Schmidt Leadership Continuum 29

30 Forces Influencing Manager’s Decisions: – Forces in Manager Values – Confidence in Subordinates – Personal Leadership Strengths – Tolerance for Ambiguity – Forces in Subordinates Need for Independence – Readiness – Interest – Knowledge – Experience – Expectations – Forces in Situation Organization Type – Group Effectiveness – Problem to Solve – Time Available Tannenbaum-Schmidt Leadership Continuum 30

31 Focuses on how much participation to allow subordinates in decision-making process Organizational decisions should be of high quality Subordinates should accept and be committed to organizational decisions that are made Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model (VYJ) 31

32 Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model Decision Styles 32

33 VYJ Decision Tree Model 33

34 Research has shown evidence decisions consistent with the model are more successful than are decisions inappropriate with the model Main challenge is the complexity of the model and difficulty in applying the model VYJ Decision-Making Effectiveness 34

35 Transformational Leadership – Inspiring organizational success by affecting followers’ beliefs – Closely related to charismatic and inspirational leadership – Raise follower awareness of organizational issues – Create vision – Build commitment – Facilitate organizational change LEADERS CHANGING ORGANIZATIONS 35



38 Leader’s primary role is to help followers in quests to satisfy personal needs, aspirations, and interests Places high value on service to others over self-interests Good listeners – Persuasive – Aware of their surroundings – Empathetic - Stewards Servant Leadership 38

39 Level 5 Leadership Blends personal humility with intense will to build long- range organizational success 39

40 Entails leaders who are deeply aware of their own and others’ moral perspectives Leaders are confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient, and of high moral character Moral Courage – strength to take actions consistent with moral beliefs Authentic Leadership 40

41 Thank You 41

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