Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through TimeChange Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through TimeChange Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes DiversityOrganizing Lifes Diversity
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease
Unit Overview – pages 366-367 Change Through Time The History of Life The Theory of Evolution Primate Evolution Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter Contents – page ix Chapter 17 Organizing Lifes DiversityOrganizing Lifes Diversity 17.1: ClassificationClassification 17.1: Section CheckSection Check 17.2: The Six KingdomsThe Six Kingdoms 17.2: Section CheckSection Check Chapter 17 SummarySummary Chapter 17 AssessmentAssessment
Chapter Intro-page 442 What Youll Learn You will identify and compare various methods of classification. You will distinguish among six kingdoms of organisms.
17.1 Section Objectives – page 443 Evaluate the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy. Section Objectives: Explain the meaning of a scientific name. Describe the organization of taxa in a biological classification system.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Biologists want to better understand organisms so they organize them. One tool that they use to do this is classificationthe grouping of objects or information based on similarities. How Classification Began
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Biologists who study taxonomy are called taxonomists. How Classification Began Taxonomy (tak SAH nuh mee) is the branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics. Click image to view movie.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 He classified all the organisms he knew into two groups: plants and animals. Aristotles system The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) developed the first widely accepted system of biological classification.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 He grouped animals according to various characteristics, including their habitat and physical differences. Aristotles system He subdivided plants into three groups, herbs, shrubs, and trees, depending on the size and structure of a plant.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 As time passed, more organisms were discovered and some did not fit easily into Aristotles groups, but many centuries passed before Aristotles system was replaced. Aristotles system According to his system, birds, bats, and flying insects are classified together even though they have little in common besides the ability to fly.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Linnaeuss system was based on physical and structural similarities of organisms. Linnaeuss system of binomial nomenclature In the late eighteenth century, a Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), developed a method of grouping organisms that is still used by scientists today. As a result, the groupings revealed the relationships of the organisms.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 This way of organizing organisms is the basis of modern classification systems. Linnaeuss system of binomial nomenclature Eventually, some biologists proposed that structural similarities reflect the evolutionary relationships of species.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 In this system, the first word identifies the genus of the organism. Linnaeuss system of binomial nomenclature Modern classification systems use a two-word naming system called binomial nomenclature that Linnaeus developed to identify species. A genus (JEE nus) (plural, genera) consists of a group of similar species.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Thus, the scientific name for each species, referred to as the species name, is a combination of the genus name and specific epithet. Linnaeuss system of binomial nomenclature The second word, which sometimes describes a characteristic of the organism, is called the specific epithet. Homo sapiens
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Scientific names should be italicized in print and underlined when handwritten. Taxonomists are required to use Latin because the language is no longer used in conversation and, therefore, does not change. The first letter of the genus name is uppercase, but the first letter of the specific epithet is lowercase. Passer domesticus Scientific and common names
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 In addition, it is confusing when a species has more than one common name. Scientific and common names Many organisms have common names. However, a common name can be misleading. For example, a sea horse is a fish, not a horse.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Grouping organisms on the basis of their evolutionary relationships makes it easier to understand biological diversity. Modern Classification Expanding on Linnaeuss work, todays taxonomists try to identify the underlying evolutionary relationships of organisms and use the information gathered as a basis for classification.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 For example, biologists study the relationship between birds and dinosaurs within the framework of classification. Taxonomists group similar organisms, both living and extinct. Classification provides a framework in which to study the relationships among living and extinct species. Archaeopteryx Taxonomy: A framework
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy: A useful tool Classifying organisms can be a useful tool for scientists who work in agriculture, forestry, and medicine.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy: A useful tool Anyone can learn to identify many organisms using a dichotomous key. A key is made up of sets of numbered statements. Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangement.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy and the economy It often happens that the discovery of new sources of lumber, medicines, and energy results from the work of taxonomists. The characteristics of a familiar species are frequently similar to those found in a new, related species.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy and the economy For example, if a taxonomist knows that a certain species of pine tree contains chemicals that make good disinfectants, its possible that another pine species could also contain these useful substances.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 How Living Things Are Classified In any classification system, items are categorized, making them easier to find and discuss. Although biologists group organisms, they subdivide the groups on the basis of more specific criteria. A group of organisms is called a taxon (plural, taxa).
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomic rankings Organisms are ranked in taxa that range from having very broad characteristics to very specific ones. The broader a taxon, the more general its characteristics, and the more species it contains.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomic rankings The smallest taxon is species. Organisms that look alike and successfully interbreed belong to the same species. The next largest taxon is a genusa group of similar species that have similar features and are closely related.
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Compare the appearance of a lynx, Lynx rufus, a bobcat, Lynx canadensis, and a mountain lion, Panthera concolor. Lynx Mountain lion Bobcat Taxonomic rankings
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Lynx rufus Lynx canadensis Bobcat Lynx
Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Lynx rufus Lynx canadensis Bobcat Lynx
Section 1 Check Question 1 How did Aristotle group organisms such as birds, bats, and insects? D. by their homologous structures C. by their common species B. by their analogous structures A. by their common genus
Section 1 Check The answer is B. The organisms were grouped together because of their wings, which, in this case, are analogous structures.
Section 1 Check Question 2 Which taxon contains the fewest species? D. phylum C. order B. family A. genus The answer is A, genus.
Section 1 Check Question 3 For which of the following species names does the specific epithet mean handy? D. Homo habilis C. Australopithecus anamensis B. Homo erectus A. Homo sapiens The answer is D.
Section 1 Check Question 4 What is the difference between classification and taxonomy? Answer Classification is the grouping of objects or information based on similarities. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that classifies and names organisms based on their different characteristics.
Section 1 Check Question 5 What are the two parts that make up binomial nomenclature? Answer Binomial nomenclature comprises a genus name followed by a specific epithet.
Section 2 Objectives – page 450 Section Objectives Explain how cladistics reveals phylogenetic relationships. Describe how evolutionary relationships are determined. Compare the six kingdoms of organisms.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Evolutionary relationships are determined on the basis of similarities in structure, breeding behavior, geographical distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry. How are evolutionary relationships determined?
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Structural similarities among species reveal relationships. Structural similarities The presence of many shared physical structures implies that species are closely related and may have evolved from a common ancestor.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 For example, plant taxonomists use structural evidence to classify dandelions and sunflowers in the same family, Asteraceae, because they have similar flower and fruit structures. Structural similarities
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Structural similarities Taxonomists observe and compare features among members of different taxa and use this information to infer their evolutionary history.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Sometimes, breeding behavior provides important clues to relationships among species. For example, two species of frogs, Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis, live in the same area and look similar. During the breeding season, however, there is an obvious difference in their mating behavior. Scientists concluded that the frogs were two separate species. Breeding behavior
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Geographical distribution Crushing Bills Probing Bills Grasping Bills Ancestral Species Parrot Bills Seed Feeders Cactus Feeders Insect Feeders Fruit Feeders
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 These finches probably spread into different niches on the volcanic islands and evolved over time into many distinct species. The fact that they share a common ancestry is supported by their geographical distribution in addition to their genetic similarities. Geographical distribution
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Both the number and structure of chromosomes, as seen during mitosis and meiosis, provide evidence about relationships among species. Chromosome comparisons
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Chromosome comparisons For example, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, and broccoli look different but have chromosomes that are almost identical in structure.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Chromosome comparisons Therefore, biologists propose that these plants are related.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Powerful evidence about relationships among species comes from biochemical analyses of organisms. Biochemistry Closely related species have similar DNA sequences and, therefore, similar proteins. In general, the more inherited nucleotide sequences that two species share, the more closely related they are.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 The evolutionary history of a species is called its phylogeny (fy LAH juh nee). Phylogenetic Classification: Models A classification system that shows the evolutionary history of species is a phylogenetic classification and reveals the evolutionary relationships of species.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 One biological system of classification that is based on phylogeny is cladistics (kla DIHS tiks). Cladistics Scientists who use cladistics assume that as groups of organisms diverge and evolve from a common ancestral group, they retain some unique inherited characteristics that taxonomists call derived traits.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Cladistics Theropods Allosaurus Sinornis Velociraptor Archaeopteryx Robin Light bones 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs Flight feathers; arms as long as legs
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 However, an important difference between cladograms and pedigrees is that, whereas pedigrees show the direct ancestry of an organism from two parents, cladograms show a probable evolution of a group of organisms from ancestral groups. Cladistics
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 One type of model resembles a fan. Another type of model Unlike a cladogram, a fanlike model may communicate the time organisms became extinct or the relative number of species in a group. A fanlike diagram incorporates fossil information and the knowledge gained from anatomical, embryological, genetic, and cladistic studies.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Lifes Six Kingdoms Lifes Six Kingdoms
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 The six kingdoms of organisms are archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. The Six Kingdoms of Organisms In general, differences in cellular structures and methods of obtaining energy are the two main characteristics that distinguish among the members of the six kingdoms.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 The prokaryotes, organisms with cells that lack distinct nuclei bounded by a membrane, are microscopic and unicellular. Prokaryotes Some are heterotrophs and some are autotrophs.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Prokaryotes In turn, some prokaryotic autotrophs are chemosynthetic, whereas others are photosynthetic. There are two kingdoms of prokaryotic organisms: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 There are several hundred species of known archaebacteria and most of them live in extreme environments such as swamps, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, and seawater evaporating ponds. Most of these environments are oxygen-free. Prokaryotes
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Prokaryotes All of the other prokaryotes, about 5000 species of bacteria, are classified in Kingdom Eubacteria. Eubacteria have very strong cell walls and a less complex genetic makeup than found in archaebacteria or eukaryotes.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Prokaryotes They live in most habitats except the extreme ones inhabited by the archaebacteria. Although some eubacteria cause diseases, such as strep throat and pneumonia, most bacteria are harmless and many are actually helpful.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Protists: A diverse group Kingdom Protista contains diverse species that share some characteristics. A protist is a eukaryote that lacks complex organ systems and lives in moist environments. Cilia Oral groove Gullet Micronucleus and macronucleus Contractile vacuole Anal pore A Paramecium
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Protists: A diverse group Although some protists are unicellular, others are multicellular. Some are plantlike autotrophs, some are animal-like heterotrophs, and others are funguslike heterotrophs that produce reproductive structures like those of fungi.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Fungi: Earths decomposers Organisms in Kingdom Fungi are heterotrophs that do not move from place to place. A fungus is either a unicellular or multicellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Fungi: Earths decomposers There are more than 50,000 known species of fungi.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers All of the organisms in Kingdom Plantae are multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. None moves from place to place.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers A plants cells usually contain chloroplasts and have cell walls composed of cellulose. Plant cells are organized into tissue that, in turn, are organized into organs and organ systems.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 The oldest plant fossils are more than 400 million years old. However, some scientists propose that plants existed on Earths landmasses much earlier than these fossils indicate. Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 There are more than 250,000 known species of plants. Although you may be most familiar with flowering plants, there are many other types of plants, including mosses, ferns, and evergreens. Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Animals: Multicellular consumers Animals are multicellular heterotrophs. Nearly all are able to move from place to place. Animal cells do not have cell walls.
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Animals: Multicellular consumers Their cells are organized into tissues that, in turn, are organized into organs and complex organ systems. Animals first appeared in the fossil record about 600 million years ago.
Section 2 Check Which of the following is NOT a way to determine evolutionary relationships? Question 1 D. geographical distribution C. specific epithets B. biochemistry A. chromosome comparisons The answer is C.
Section 2 Check How does a cladogram differ from a pedigree? Question 2 Answer Pedigrees show the direct ancestry of an organism from two parents. Cladograms show a probable evolution from an ancestral group.
Section 2 Check Using the cladogram, which of the following traits would be a primitive trait? Question 3 Theropods Allosaurus Sinornis Velociraptor Archaeopteryx Robin Light bones 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs Flight feathers; arms as long as legs FL: SC.D.1.4.3
Section 2 Check Question 3 Theropods Allosaurus Sinornis Velociraptor Archaeopteryx Robin Light bones 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs Flight feathers; arms as long as legs A. down feathers B. arms as long as legs C. light bonesD. flight feathers FL: SC.D.1.4.3
Section 2 Check The answer is C. Primitive traits are traits that evolved very early. Theropods Allosaurus Sinornis Velociraptor Archaeopteryx Robin Light bones 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs Flight feathers; arms as long as legs FL: SC.D.1.4.3
Section 2 Check Why do taxonomists use Latin names for classification? Question 4 Answer Latin is no longer used in conversation and, therefore, does not change.
Section 2 Check What is the relationship between cladistics and taxonomy? Question 5 Answer Cladistics is one kind of taxonomy that is based on phylogeny.
Chapter Summary – 17.1 Although Aristotle developed the first classification system, Linnaeus laid the foundation for modern classification systems by using structural similarities to organize species and by developing a binomial naming system for species. Classification Scientists use a two-word system called binomial nomenclature to give species scientific names.
Chapter Summary – 17.1 Classification provides an orderly framework in which to study the relationships among living and extinct species. Classification Organisms are classified in a hierarchy of taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus, and species.
Chapter Summary – 17.2 Biologists use similarities in body structures, breeding behavior, geographic distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry to determine evolutionary relationships. The Six Kingdoms Modern classification systems are based on phylogenythe evolutionary history of a species.
Chapter Summary – 17.2 Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria contain only unicellular prokaryotes. The Six Kingdoms Kingdom Protista contains eukaryotes that lack complex organ systems. Kingdom Fungi includes heterotrophic eukaryotes that absorb their nutrients.
Chapter Summary – 17.2 Kingdom Plantae includes multicellular eukaryotes that are photosynthetic. The Six Kingdoms Kingdom Animalia includes multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs with cells that lack cell walls.
Chapter Assessment Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Lynx rufus Lynx canadensis Bobcat Lynx Question 1 FL: SC.G.1.4.1
Both organisms are members of the same kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and genus but belong to different species. Chapter Assessment FL: SC.G.1.4.1
Chapter Assessment Question 2 Which taxon contains the others? D. family C. genus B. class A. order The answer is B. FL: SC.G.1.4.1
Chapter Assessment Question 3 Which of the following pairs of terms is NOT related? D. Aristotle – evolutionary relationships C. biology – taxonomy B. binomial nomenclature – Linnaeus A. specific epithet – genus The answer is D.
Chapter Assessment Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Lynx rufus Lynx canadensis Bobcat Lynx Question 4 FL: SC.G.1.4.1
Bobcats are more closely associated with lynxes as cats than as mammals. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Lynx rufus Lynx canadensis Bobcat Lynx Chapter Assessment FL: SC.G.1.4.1
Chapter Assessment Question 5 What two main characteristics distinguish the members of the six kingdoms? Answer The two characteristics are differences in cellular structures and methods of obtaining energy. FL: SC.G.1.4.1
Chapter Assessment Question 6 Which of the following is NOT true of both the animal and plant kingdoms? D. cells contain cell walls C. cells are organized into tissues B. tissues are organized into organs A. both contain organisms made up of cells The answer is D.
Chapter Assessment Question 7 Which of the following describes a fungus? D. heterotrophic prokaryote C. unicellular autotroph B. unicellular or multicellular heterotroph A. autotrophic prokaryote
The answer is B, unicellular or multicellular heterotroph. Chapter Assessment
Question 8 What is a dichotomous key? Answer A dichotomous key is a set of paired statements that can be used to identify organisms.
Chapter Assessment Question 9 How has DNA-DNA hybridization shown that flamingoes are more closely related to storks than they are to geese?
When DNA from storks and flamingoes was allowed to bond, DNA base pairs matched and the strands bonded more strongly than when DNA from flamingoes and geese was allowed to bond. Flamingo Stork Chapter Assessment
Question 10 Why do some scientists believe that plants existed on Earths landmasses much earlier than fossils indicate? Answer Plants do not fossilize as often as organisms that contain hard structures, like bones, which more readily fossilize than soft tissues. FL: SC.D.1.4.3
Photo Credits NOAA PhotoDisc Mark Steinmetz Corbis Digital Stock Alton Biggs
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