Presentation on theme: "The Mughal Empire 1526-1858 A.D. By: Lauren Sibille, Asia DaCosta Marilyn Sanabria 2 nd Period The white area on the map is where the Mughal Empire was."— Presentation transcript:
The Mughal Empire A.D. By: Lauren Sibille, Asia DaCosta Marilyn Sanabria 2 nd Period The white area on the map is where the Mughal Empire was during most of its rule.
Background Information The Mughal (or Mogul) Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries. It consolidated Islam in South Asia, and spread Muslim (and particularly Persian) arts and culture as well as the faith. The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority. However, for much of their empire they allowed Hindus to reach senior government or military positions. The foundation of the Mughal Empire was established around 1504 by Al- Din Muhammad. Also known as Babur (The Tiger). Muhammad was a Chagatai Turk who claimed descent from both Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. He took control of Kabul (the largest city in Afghanistan) and eastern regions of Khorasan, which included the fertile Sindh region and lower valley of Indus River. In 1526, the Muhammad defeated the last of the Turkic Delhi Sultans, Ibrahim Sha Lodi, at the First Battle of Panipat to put the newly founded Kingdom in motion.
Why was the Mughal Empire important? The Mughals brought many changes to India: Centralized government which brought together many smaller kingdoms Delegated government with respect for human rights Persian art and culture Persian language mixed with Arabic and Hindi to create Urdu Periods of great religious tolerance A style of architecture (e.g. the Taj Mahal) A system of education that took account of pupils' needs and culture
Political Organization The Empire Babur founded was a sophisticated civilization based on religious toleration. It was a mixture of Persian, Mongol, and Indian culture. While Humayun, Baburs successor, was certainly disastrous as a ruler, his love of poetry and culture heavily influenced his son Akbar, and helped to make the Mughal Empire an artistic power as well as a military one. Akbar established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory.
This is a Delhi tomb in India.
Emperors of the Mughal Empire Babur, the first Mughal emperor, was followed by his son Humayun who was a bad emperor, a better poet, and a drug addict. The third Emperor, Abu Akbar, is regarded as one of the great rulers of all time. Akbar was followed by Jahangir, and then his son Jahan. They both had major religious and cultural influences in the Mughal Empire.
Emperors (cont.) Jahan's son, Aurangzeb, was to be the last great Mughal Emperor. He was a strong leader, whose conquests expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest size. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire reached the peak of its military power, but the rule was unstable mostly because the empire got too big to handle. Aurangzeb's extremism caused Mughal territory to dry up and the Empire went into decline. The last Mughal Emperor was disposed of by the British in 1858.
You can see here that only under the emperors Jahan and Aurangzeb did the Mughal Empire ever reach most of India.
Role of Religion Under Babur, Hinduism was tolerated and new Hindu temples were built with his permission. Baburs first act after conquering Delhi was to forbid the killing of cows because that was offensive to Hindus. He even wrote an autobiography, The Babur - Namah. The autobiography is candid, honest, and at times even poetic. Akbar proclaimed an entirely new state religion of 'God-ism', a jumble of Islamic, Hindu, Christian and Buddhist teaching with himself as deity. It never spread beyond his court and died when he did.
Role of Religion (cont.) Fatehpur Sikri was the new capital built by Akbar. Akbar believed that that a ruler's duty was to treat all believers equally, all religions should be tolerated, and, whatever their belief. Akbar's son, Emperor Jahangir, readopted Islam as the state religion and continued the policy of religious toleration. His court included large numbers of Indian Hindus, Persian Shi'a and Sufis and members of local heterodox Islamic sects.
This is the famous Fatehpur Sikri which was the new capital built by Akbar, as a part of his attempt to absorb other religions into Islam. Fatehpur Sikri is a synthesis of Hindu and Islamic architecture.
Cultural Developments Jahangir began building the magnificent monuments and gardens by which the Mughals are chiefly remembered today. Jahangir's approach was typified by the development of Urdu as the official language of Empire. Urdu uses an Arabic script, but Persian vocabulary and Hindi grammatical structure. Jahan, Jahangirs successor, commissioned the Taj Mahal.
This is the world famous Taj Mahal which was built by Emperor Jahan as a symbol of the empires stability, power, and confidence.
Social Aspects Generally the Mughal Empire is thought of as a prosperous time period. Even though the Mughal Empire existed years ago, its influence still exists in current day India. The social aspects of the Mughal Empire and India today especially relate including family life, religion, art, music, literature, and education. During the Mughal Empire, women had a significant role in family life. Women received salaries, owned land, participated in business transactions, and literary activities. Aristocratic women painted, wrote poetry, and played music because they received a higher education.
Social Aspects (cont.) The Mughal Empire was run by Muslim emperors, however India was and still is Hindu dominated. Hindus, specifically of the upper class, adopted the Muslim practice of isolating women, called purda. The Hindu practice of cremation of widows, called suttee, continued even though the Mughals tried to abolish it. The Mughal rulers sometimes forced Islam upon the Hindus, but many times the Hindus resisted. Hindu men would marry Islam women and convert them to Hinduism in order to keep their religion prominent. Families looked down upon Hindus if one converted to Islam. Child marriage also remained common. Depending on the emperor, there was religious acceptance and tolerance, but religious segregation still existed.
Economic Developments Productive agricultural economy was the base and foundation to all of the Islamic empires. They relied heavily on crops of wheat and rice. The profit from agricultural trade and production went mostly to finance armies and bureaucracies. The Columbian exchange brought change (though not as dramatic as the change in Europe and Asia) by introducing American food crops such as maize, potatoes, and tomatoes. Maize was used as feed for animals because it was not popular for food use for the Islamic people.
Economic Developments (cont.) Tobacco and coffee traded by European merchants became very popular in the 16th century. Plantations specialized in the production of these items in a similar way as sugar in America. The interest in coffee and tobacco sparked a new tradition of coffee and smoke houses where the people could indulge in both of the addictive substances. In the mid sixteenth century, both the drink and tobacco were outlawed because of their distraction on moral teachings. The rise in population in the Mughal empire was attributed mainly to their success in agriculture rather than trade. The people of the Mughal empire also participated actively.
Bibliography "History of the Mughals." SSCNet. 31 Jan "History of the Mughals." SSCNet. 31 Jan "Social Aspects of the Mughal Empire in India." Menloschool. 31 Jan