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Table of Contents – pages iii

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2 Table of Contents – pages iii
Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body Table of Contents – pages iii

3 Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

4 Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

5 Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

6 Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

7 Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

8 The Human Body Protection, Support, and Locomotion
The Digestive and Endocrine Systems The Nervous System Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Reproduction and Development Immunity from Disease Unit Overview – pages

9 Chapter Contents – page xiii
Chapter 39 Immunity from Disease 39.1: The Nature of Disease 39.1: Section Check 39.2: Defense Against Infectious Diseases 39.2: Section Check Chapter 39 Summary Chapter 39 Assessment Chapter Contents – page xiii

10 You will compare antibody and cellular immunity.
What You’ll Learn You will describe how infections are transmitted and what causes the symptoms of diseases. You will explain the various types of innate and acquired immune responses. You will compare antibody and cellular immunity. Chapter Intro-page 1022

11 39.1 Section Objectives – page 1023
Outline the steps of Koch’s postulates. Describe how pathogens are transmitted. Explain what causes the symptoms of a disease. 39.1 Section Objectives – page 1023

12 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
What is an infectious disease? Disease-producing agents such as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, viruses, and other parasites are called pathogens. Streptococcus The main sources of pathogens are soil, contaminated water, and infected animals, including other people. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

13 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
What is an infectious disease? Not all microorganisms are pathogenic. In fact, the presence of some microorganisms in your body is beneficial. These microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship with your body. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

14 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
What is an infectious disease? If conditions change and the beneficial organisms are eliminated, pathogens can establish themselves and cause infection and disease. If the beneficial organisms enter areas of the body where they are not normally found or if a person becomes weakened or injured, these formerly harmless organisms can become potential pathogens. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

15 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Human Infectious Disease Disease Cause Affected Organ System Transmission Smallpox Virus Skin Droplet Chicken pox Virus Skin Droplet Rabies Virus Nervous system Animal bite Poliomyelitis Virus Virus Nervous system Contaminated water Colds Viruses Respiratory system Direct contact Influenza Viruses Respiratory system Direct contact HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Exchange of body fluids Hepatitis B Virus Liver Exchange of body fluids Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture wound Food poisoning Bacteria Digestive system Contaminated food/water Strep throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Diptheria Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Spinal meningitis Bacteria Nervous system Droplet Section 39.1 Summary – pages

16 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Determining What Causes a Disease Not all diseases are caused by pathogens. Some disorders are inherited, such as hemophilia (hee muh FIH lee uh), which is caused by a recessive allele on the X chromosome, and sickle-cell anemia. Others, such as osteoarthritis (ahs tee oh ar THRI tus), may be caused by wear and tear on the body as it ages. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

17 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Determining What Causes a Disease Pathogens cause infectious diseases and some cancers. In order to determine which pathogen causes a specific disease, scientists follow a standard set of procedures. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

18 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
First pathogen identified The first proof that pathogens actually cause disease came from the work of Robert Koch (KAHK) in 1876. Koch discovered a rod-shaped bacterium in the blood of cattle that had died of anthrax. Anthrax Section 39.1 Summary – pages

19 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
First pathogen identified He cultured the bacteria on nutrients and then injected samples of the culture into healthy animals. When these animals became sick and died, Koch isolated the bacteria in their blood and compared them with the bacteria he had originally isolated from anthrax victims. He found that the two sets of blood cultures contained the same bacteria. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

20 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
A procedure to establish the cause of a disease Koch established experimental steps for directly relating a specific pathogen to a specific disease. The following steps, first published in 1884, are known today as Koch’s postulates. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

21 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Infectious pathogen identified Step 2 Step 1 Pathogen grown in pure culture Step 4 Identical pathogen identified Step 3 Pathogen injected into healthy animal Healthy animal becomes sick Section 39.1 Summary – pages

22 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Exceptions to Koch’s postulates Some organisms, such as the pathogenic bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted disease syphilis (SIH fuh lus), have never been grown on an artificial medium. Viral pathogens also cannot be cultured this way because they multiply only within cells. As a result, living tissue must be used as a culture medium for viruses. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

23 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
The Spread of Infectious Diseases For a disease to continue and spread, there must be a continual source of the disease organisms. This source can be either a living organism or an inanimate object on which the pathogen can survive. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

24 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Reservoirs of pathogens The body can be a reservoir of disease-causing organisms. People may transmit pathogens directly or indirectly to other people. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

25 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Reservoirs of pathogens Sometimes, people can harbor pathogens without exhibiting any signs of the illness and unknowingly transmit the pathogens to others. These people are called carriers and are a significant reservoir of infectious diseases. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

26 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Reservoirs of pathogens Other people may unknowingly pass on a disease during its first stage, before they begin to experience symptoms. This symptom-free period, while the pathogens are multiplying within the body, is called an incubation period. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

27 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Reservoirs of pathogens Animals are other living reservoirs of microorganisms that cause disease in humans. Some types of influenza, commonly known as the flu, rabies, and Lyme disease are transmitted to humans from animals. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

28 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Reservoirs of pathogens The major nonliving reservoirs of infectious diseases are soil and water. Soil harbors pathogens such as fungi and bacterium that causes botulism, a type of food poisoning. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

29 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Reservoirs of pathogens Water contaminated by feces of humans and other animals is a reservoir for several pathogens, especially those responsible for intestinal diseases. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

30 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Transmission of disease Pathogens can be transmitted to a host from reservoirs in four main ways: by direct contact, by an object, through the air, or by an intermediate organism called a vector. The common cold, influenza, and STDs are spread by direct contact. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

31 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Transmission of disease Bacteria and other microorganisms can be present on nonliving objects such as money, toys, or towels. Transmission occurs when people unknowingly handle contaminated objects. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

32 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Transmission of disease Airborne transmission of a disease can occur when a person coughs or sneezes, spreading pathogens contained in droplets of mucus into the air. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

33 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Transmission of disease Diseases transmitted by vectors are most commonly spread by insects and arthropods. Diseases such as malaria and the West Nile virus are transmitted by mosquitoes. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

34 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Transmission of disease Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever are diseases that are transmitted by ticks. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

35 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Transmission of disease Flies also are significant vectors of disease. They transmit pathogens when they land on infected materials, such as animal wastes, and then land on fresh food that is eaten by humans. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

36 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
What causes the symptoms of a disease? When a pathogen invades your body, it encounters your immune system. If the pathogen overcomes the defenses of your immune system, it can metabolize and multiply, causing damage to the tissues it has invaded, and even killing host cells. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

37 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria Most of the damage done to host cells by bacteria is inflicted by toxins. Toxins are poisonous substances that are sometimes produced by microorganisms. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

38 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria These poisons are transported by the blood and can inhibit protein synthesis in the host cell, destroy blood cells and blood vessels, produce fever, or cause spasms by disrupting the nervous system. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

39 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria The toxin produced by tetanus bacteria affects nerve cells and produces uncontrollable muscle contractions. Tetanus bacteria are normally present in soil. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

40 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria If dirt transfers the bacteria into a deep wound on the body, the bacteria begin to produce the toxin in the wounded area. A small amount of this toxin, about the same amount as the ink used to make a period could kill 30 people. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

41 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Patterns of Diseases Identifying a pathogen, its method of transmission, and the geographic distribution of the disease it causes are major concerns of government health departments. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

42 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Patterns of Diseases Some diseases, such as typhoid fever, occur only occasionally in the United States. On the other hand, many diseases are constantly present in the population. Such a disease is called an endemic disease. The common cold is an endemic disease. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

43 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Patterns of Diseases Section 39.1 Summary – pages

44 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Treating Diseases An antibiotic is a substance produced by a microorganism that, in small amounts, will kill or inhibit the growth and reproduction of other microorganisms, especially bacteria. Although antibiotics can be used to cure some bacterial infections, antibiotics do not have an affect on viruses. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

45 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Treating Diseases With the continued use of antibiotics, bacteria can become resistant to the drugs. That means the drugs become ineffective. Penicillin, an antibiotic produced by a fungus, was used for the first time in the 1940s and is still one of the most effective antibiotics known. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

46 Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030
Treating Diseases The use of antibiotics is only one way to fight infections. Your body also has its own built-in defense system—the immune system—that works to keep you healthy. Section 39.1 Summary – pages

47 Question 1 A disease producing agent is called a _______. A. vector
B. bacteria C. pathogen D. antigen The answer is C, pathogen. Section 1 Check

48 Human Infectious Disease Question 2
Cause Affected Organ System Transmission Smallpox Virus Skin Droplet Chicken pox Virus Skin Droplet Rabies Virus Nervous system Animal bite Poliomyelitis Virus Nervous system Contaminated water Colds Viruses Respiratory system Direct contact Influenza Viruses Respiratory system Direct contact HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Exchange of body fluids Hepatitis B Virus Liver Exchange of body fluids Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture wound Food poisoning Bacteria Digestive system Contaminated food/water Strep throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Diptheria Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Spinal meningitis Bacteria Nervous system Droplet Section 1 Check

49 Human Infectious Disease
Cause Affected Organ System Transmission Smallpox Virus Skin Droplet Chicken pox Virus Skin Droplet Rabies Virus Nervous system Animal bite Poliomyelitis Virus Nervous system Contaminated water Colds Viruses Respiratory system Direct contact Influenza Viruses Respiratory system Direct contact HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Exchange of body fluids Hepatitis B Virus Liver Exchange of body fluids Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture wound Food poisoning Bacteria Digestive system Contaminated food/water Strep throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Diptheria Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Spinal meningitis Bacteria Nervous system Droplet Section 1 Check

50 Question 3 Answer How do bacteria affect host cells?
Most of the damage done to host cells is inflicted by toxins. Toxins are poisonous substances that are sometimes produced by microorganisms. Toxins can cause many problems including fever, spasms, or disrupting the nervous system. FL: SC.F.1.4.8 Section 1 Check

51 Immunity: Body Warfare Against Foreigners
Sit in your assigned section. Quickly complete the handout that you received at the door. Quietly wait for further instructions.

52 Lecture Hall Expectations
In the auditorium seated no later than four (4) minutes after the tardy bell; late to class is STILL late to class. Quiet while facili-teacher is engaged in direct instruction; quiet while classmate is responding to question. Learning by PARTICIPATING!!!

53 What Are We Doing This Week?
Monday-Tuesday Coach Bobe; Immune system WednesdayMs. Mendoza; Cardiovascular system ThursdayMs. Wilson; Biology EOC practice FridayMr. Chatman; Biology EOC games and pep rally

54 What Are We Doing Today? Lecture Hall expectations
Warm-up reading activity for background information Wall Manipulatives FAST, FAST, FAST lecture on immunity; notes will be available online at

55 Wall Manipulatives Facili-teacher assigns you to starting point.
Proceed around the room in clockwise direction (i.e., moving to the right). Respond on the pages that have been posted for your class. 10 seconds to transition; 1 minute to respond.

56 Section 2 Objectives – page 1031
Identify the cells, tissues, and organs that make up the immune system. Compare innate and acquired immune responses. Distinguish between antibody and cellular immunity. Section 2 Objectives – page 1031

57 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Innate Immunity The body’s earliest lines of defense against any and all pathogens make up your nonspecific, innate immunity. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

58 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Skin and body secretions Intact skin is a formidable physical barrier to the entrance of microorganisms. In addition to the skin, pathogens also encounter your body’s secretions of mucus, oil, sweat, tears, and saliva. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

59 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Skin and body secretions Because mucus is slightly viscous (thick), it also traps many microorganisms and other foreign substances that enter the respiratory and digestive tracts. Mucus is continually swallowed and passed to the stomach, where acidic gastric juice destroys most bacteria and their toxins. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

60 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Skin and body secretions Sweat, tears, and saliva all contain the enzyme lysozyme, which is capable of breaking down the cell walls of some bacteria. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

61 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Inflammation of body tissues If a pathogen manages to get past the skin and body secretions, your body has several other nonspecific defense mechanisms that can destroy the invader and restore homeostasis. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

62 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Inflammation of body tissues If bacteria or other pathogens enter and damage body tissues, inflammation (ihn fluh MAY shun) results. Inflammation is characterized by four symptoms—redness, swelling, pain, and heat. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

63 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Inflammation of body tissues Histamine released— blood vessels dilate Injury Inflammation begins when damaged tissued cells called mast cells, and white blood cells called basophils release histamine (HIHS tuh meen). Section 39.2 Summary – pages

64 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Inflammation of body tissues Histamine released— blood vessels dilate Injury Histamine causes blood vessels in the injured area to dilate, which makes them more permeable to tissue fluid. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

65 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Inflammation of body tissues Histamine released— blood vessels dilate Injury These dilated blood vessels cause the redness of an inflamed area. Fluid that leaks from the vessels into the injured tissue helps the body destroy toxic agents and restore homeostasis. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

66 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Inflammation of body tissues This increase in tissue fluid causes swelling and pain, and may also cause a local temperature increase. Inflammation can occur as a reaction to other types of injury as well as infections. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

67 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens Phagocytes (FA guh sites) are white blood cells that destroy pathogens by surrounding and engulfing them. Phagocytes include monocytes, which develop into macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

68 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens Macrophages are white blood cells that provide the first defense against pathogens that have managed to enter the tissues. Macrophages are found in the tissues of the body. Lysosomal enzymes inside the macrophage digest the particles it has engulfed. Macrophage Section 39.2 Summary – pages

69 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens If the infection is not stopped by the tissue macrophages, another type of phagocyte, called a neutrophil, is attracted to the site. They also destroy pathogens by engulfing and digesting them. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

70 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens If the infection is not stopped by tissue macrophages and neutrophils, there is a third method of defense. A different type of phagocyte begins to arrive on the scene. Monocytes are small, immature macrophages that circulate in the bloodstream. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

71 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens These cells squeeze through blood vessel walls to move into the infected area. Blood capillary Once they reach the site of the infection they mature and are now called macrophages. Macrophage Connective tissue Section 39.2 Summary – pages

72 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens Blood capillary They then begin consuming pathogens and dead neutrophils by phagocytosis. Macrophage Connective tissue Section 39.2 Summary – pages

73 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens Swelling occurs Tissue fluid moves into injured area After a few days, infected tissue harbors a collection of live and dead white blood cells, multiplying and dead pathogens, and body fluids called pus. Pus Phagocytes Section 39.2 Summary – pages

74 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Phagocytosis of pathogens Swelling occurs Tissue fluid moves into injured area Pus Pus formation usually continues until the infection subsides. Phagocytes Eventually, the pus is cleared away by macrophages. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

75 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Protective proteins Phagocytes alone cannot destroy viruses. One way your body can counteract viral infections is with interferons. Interferons are proteins that protect cells from viruses. Interferons are host-cell specific. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

76 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Protective proteins Human interferons will protect human cells from viruses but cannot protect cells of other species from the same virus. Interferon is produced by a body cell that has been infected by the virus. The interferon diffuses to uninfected neighboring cells, which then produce antiviral proteins that can prevent the virus from multiplying. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

77 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Acquired Immunity The cells of your innate immune system continually survey your body for foreign invaders. When a pathogen is detected, these cells begin defending your body right away. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

78 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Acquired Immunity As the infection continues, another type of immune response that counteracts the invading pathogen is also mobilized. Certain white blood cells gradually develop the ability to recognize a specific foreign substance. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

79 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Acquired Immunity This acquired immune response enables these white blood cells to inactivate or destroy the pathogen. Defending against a specific pathogen by gradually building up a resistance to it is called acquired immunity. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

80 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Acquired Immunity Normally, the immune system recognizes components of the body as self, and foreign substances, called antigens, as nonself. Antigens are usually proteins present on the surfaces of whole organisms, such as bacteria, or on parts of organisms, such as the pollen grains of plants. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

81 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Acquired Immunity Antigens are foreign substances that stimulate an immune response, and antibodies are proteins in the blood that correspond specifically to each antigen. The development of acquired immunity is the job of the lymphatic system. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

82 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Acquired Immunity Non-specific Immune Response Click image to view movie Section 39.2 Summary – pages

83 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Tonsils The lymphatic system Lymph nodes Right lymphatic duct Your lymphatic (lihm FA tihk) system not only helps the body defend itself against disease, but also maintains homeostasis by keeping body fluids at a constant level. T-cell Thoracic duct Intestinal lymph nodes Thymus gland Appendix Spleen B-cell Lymph vessels Bone marrow Section 39.2 Summary – pages

84 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
The lymphatic system Your body’s cells are constantly bathed with fluid. This tissue fluid is composed of water and dissolved substances that diffuse from the blood into the spaces between the cells that make up the surrounding tissues. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

85 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
The lymphatic system Once the tissue fluid enters the lymph vessels, it is called lymph. Lymph capillaries meet to form larger vessels called lymph veins. The flow of lymph is only toward the heart, so there are no lymph arteries. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

86 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Tonsils The lymphatic system Lymph nodes Right lymphatic duct The lymph veins converge to form two major lymph ducts. T-cell Thoracic duct Intestinal lymph nodes Thymus gland Appendix These ducts return the lymph to the bloodstream in the shoulder area, after it has been filtered through various lymph glands. Spleen B-cell Lymph vessels Bone marrow Section 39.2 Summary – pages

87 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Glands of the lymphatic system Lymph node Lymph A lymph node is a small mass of tissue that contains lymphocytes and filters pathogens from the lymph. Lymph nodes are made of an interlaced network of connective tissue fibers that holds lymphocytes. Valve Lymph vessel Section 39.2 Summary – pages

88 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Glands of the lymphatic system Lymph node Lymph A lymphocyte (LIHM fuh site) is a type of white blood cell that defends the body against foreign substances. Valve Lymph vessel Section 39.2 Summary – pages

89 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Tonsils Glands of the lymphatic system The tonsils are large clusters of lymph tissue located at the back of the mouth cavity and at the back of the throat. They form a protective ring around the openings of the nasal and oral cavities. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

90 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Tonsils Glands of the lymphatic system Tonsils provide protection against bacteria and other pathogens that enter your nose and mouth. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

91 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Glands of the lymphatic system The spleen is an organ that stores certain types of lymphocytes. It also filters out and destroys bacteria and worn-out red blood cells, and acts as a blood reservoir. Spleen The spleen does not filter lymph. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

92 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Glands of the lymphatic system The thymus gland stores immature lymphocytes until they mature and are released into the body’s defense system. Thymus gland Section 39.2 Summary – pages

93 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Antibody Immunity Acquired immunity involves the production of two kinds of immune responses: antibody immunity and cellular immunity. Antibody immunity is a type of chemical warfare within your body that involves several types of cells. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

94 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041

95 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041

96 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Cellular Immunity Sometimes the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance such as pollen. Mast cells release histamines in large amounts, causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction: sneezing, increased mucus production in the nasal passages, and redness. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

97 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Cellular Immunity The immune system also can recognize its own cells as foreign and mistakenly attack the body’s own tissues in what is referred to as an autoimmune disorder. T cells and antibodies also can attack transplanted tissue, such as a transplanted kidney, that comes from a source outside the body. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

98 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Passive and Active Immunity Acquired immunity to a disease may be either passive or active. Passive acquired immunity develops as a result of acquiring antibodies that are generated in another host. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

99 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Passive and Active Immunity Active acquired immunity develops when your body is directly exposed to antigens and produces antibodies in response to those antigens. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

100 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Passive Immunity Natural passive immunity develops when antibodies are transferred from a mother to her unborn baby through the placenta or to a newborn infant through the mother’s milk. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

101 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Passive Immunity Artificial passive immunity involves injecting into the body antibodies that come from an animal or a human who is already immune to the disease. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

102 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Active Immunity Active immunity is obtained naturally when a person is exposed to antigens. The body produces antibodies that correspond specifically to these antigens. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

103 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Active Immunity Recommended Childhood Immunizations Immunization Agent Protection Against Diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus (lockjaw) Acellular DPT or Tetrammune Bacteria MMR Virus Measles, mumps, rubella OPV Virus Poliomyelitis (polio) HBV Virus Hepatitis B HIB or Tetrammune Bacteria Haemophilis influenza B (spinal meningitis) Section 39.2 Summary – pages

104 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Active Immunity In the late 1790s, Edward Jenner, an English country doctor demonstrated the first safe vaccination procedure. Cowpox is a disease similar to, but milder than, smallpox. To test whether immunity to cowpox also caused immunity to smallpox, Jenner infected a young boy with cowpox. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

105 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Active Immunity The boy developed a mild cowpox infection. Six weeks later, Jenner scratched the skin of the boy with viruses from a smallpox victim. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

106 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
Active Immunity The viruses for cowpox and smallpox are so similar that the immune system cannot tell them apart. The boy did not get sick because he had artificially acquired active immunity to the disease. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

107 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System In 1981, an unusual cluster of cases of a rare pneumonia caused by a protozoan appeared in the San Francisco area. Medical investigators soon related the appearance of this disease with the incidence of a rare form of skin cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

108 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System By 1983, the pathogen causing this immune system disease had been identified as a retrovirus, now known as Human Immunodeficiency (ih myew noh dih FIH shun see) Virus, or HIV. HIV kills helper T cells and leads to the disorder known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

109 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System HIV is transmitted when blood or body fluids from an infected person are passed to another person through direct contact, or through contact with objects that have been contaminated by infected blood or other body fluids. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

110 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System Proteins The HIV virus is basically two copies of RNA wrapped in proteins, then further wrapped in a lipid coat. RNA Lipid coat Section 39.2 Summary – pages

111 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System Proteins The knoblike outer proteins of the virus attach to a receptor on a helper T cell. The virus can then penetrate the cell, where it may remain inactive for months. RNA Lipid coat Section 39.2 Summary – pages

112 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System HIV contains the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which allows the virus to use its RNA to synthesize viral DNA in the host cell. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

113 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System The first symptoms of AIDS may not appear for eight to ten years after initial HIV infection. During this time, the virus reproduces and infects an increasing number of T cells. Infected persons may eventually develop AIDS. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

114 Section 39.2 Summary – pages 1031-1041
AIDS and the Immune System During the early stages of the disease, symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, a loss of appetite and weight, fever, rashes, night sweats, and fatigue. In most cases, as AIDS progresses, infectious diseases or certain forms of cancer take advantage of the body’s weakened immune system and homeostasis is severely disrupted. Section 39.2 Summary – pages

115 Question 1 What is the body’s first line of defense against diseases?
A. white blood cells B. the skin C. interferons D. lymphocytes Section 2 Check

116 The answer is B. Intact skin is a formidable physical barrier to the entrance of microorganisms.
Section 2 Check

117 Question 2 What is the difference between a phagocyte and a macrophage? Answer Both are white blood cells. Phagocytes include monocytes which develop into macrophages. Macrophages are present in body tissues, while other types of phagocytes circulate in blood. Section 2 Check

118 Question 3 In antibody immunity, if the infection is not controlled by the innate immune system, what happens next? Answer Your body builds up acquired immunity to the antigen by producing antibodies to it. Section 2 Check

119 The Nature of Disease Infectious diseases are caused by the presence of pathogens in the body. The cause of an infection can be established by following Koch’s postulates. Chapter Summary – 39.1

120 The Nature of Disease Animals, including humans, and nonliving objects can serve as reservoirs of pathogens. Pathogens can be transmitted by direct contact, by a contaminated object, through the air, or by a vector. Symptoms of a disease are caused by direct damage to cells or by toxins produced by the pathogen. Chapter Summary – 39.1

121 The Nature of Disease Some diseases occur periodically, whereas others are endemic. Occasionally, a disease reaches epidemic proportions. Some infectious diseases can be treated with antibiotics, but pathogens may become resistant to these drugs. Chapter Summary – 39.1

122 Defense Against Infectious Diseases
Innate immunity provides general protection against various pathogens. Innate immunity includes the physical barrier of the skin as well as mucus, lysozymes in sweat, oil, tears, and saliva, the inflammation response, phagocytosis, and interferons. Chapter Summary – 39.2

123 Defense Against Infectious Diseases
Acquired immunity provides a way of fighting specific pathogens by recognizing invaders as nonself. It includes antibody and cellular immunity. The lymphatic system consists of the lymphatic vessels and the lymphatic organs: lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, and thymus. Chapter Summary – 39.2

124 Defense Against Infectious Diseases
Passive immunity develops as a result of acquiring antibodies generated in another host. Active acquired immunity develops when the body is directly exposed to antigens and produces antibodies in response. Chapter Summary – 39.2

125 Question 1 How does natural passive immunity occur? Chapter Assessment

126 Natural passive immunity develops when antibodies are transferred from a mother to her unborn baby through the placenta or to an infant through the mother’s milk. Chapter Assessment

127 Question 2 Proteins What do the knoblike projections on the outer surface of the HIV virus do? RNA Lipid coat Chapter Assessment

128 Proteins The knoblike structures are proteins that attach to a receptor on a helper T cell. They allow the virus to penetrate the cell. RNA Lipid coat Chapter Assessment

129 Question 3 Which of the following is produced in bone marrow and processed in the thymus gland? A. C. Macrophage B cell B. D. T cell Plasma cell Chapter Assessment

130 The answer is B. A T cell is produced in bone marrow and processed in the thymus gland.
Chapter Assessment

131 Question 4 What type of lymph tissue is responsible for protecting your nose and mouth from bacteria and other pathogens? A. bone marrow B. spleen C. lymph vessels D. tonsils FL: SC.F.1.4.2 Chapter Assessment

132 Tonsils The answer is D, tonsils. FL: SC.F.1.4.2 Chapter Assessment

133 Question 5 Why is it important, when determining the cause of a disease, that the isolated pathogen placed in the healthy host can be shown to cause the disease being studied? Chapter Assessment

134 If the pathogen placed into the new host cannot be isolated and be shown to be the original pathogen, then the original pathogen did not cause the disease. Infectious pathogen identified Step 2 Step 1 Pathogen grown in pure culture Step 4 Identical pathogen identified Step 3 Pathogen injected into healthy animal Healthy animal becomes sick Chapter Assessment

135 Question 6 Lyme disease and Malaria are examples of diseases spread by _______. A. droplets B. inanimate objects C. direct contact D. vectors Chapter Assessment

136 The answer is D. Diseases spread by vectors are most commonly spread by insects and arthropods.
Chapter Assessment

137 Question 7 How do macrophages move out of blood vessels?
Chapter Assessment

138 Macrophages move out of blood vessels by squeezing between the cells of the vessel walls.
capillary Macrophage Connective tissue Chapter Assessment

139 Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. Digital Stock ARS/USDA
Photo Credits USDA   PhotoDisc Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. Digital Stock   ARS/USDA Skip Comer   Pfizer Inc   Corbis   Carolina Biological Supply Company Alton Biggs Photo Credits

140 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file.

141 End of Chapter 39 Show


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