Presentation on theme: "Foundations Timeline Before 10,000 BCEPaleolithic Age 10,000 BCE to 4000 BCENeolithic Age 4000 BCE to 500 BCEFirst Civilizations 500 BCE to 600 CEClassical."— Presentation transcript:
Foundations Timeline Before 10,000 BCEPaleolithic Age 10,000 BCE to 4000 BCENeolithic Age 4000 BCE to 500 BCEFirst Civilizations 500 BCE to 600 CEClassical Societies
What distinguishes the first civilizations from the Classical Societies? Civilization (complex society) refers to the large scale social organization that emerged in several parts of the ancient world. Early complex societies all depended on robust agricultural economies with surplus. This surplus enabled individuals to congregate in cities, where they devoted time to specialized tasks. Classical societies achieved high degrees of internal organization, extended their authority over extremely large regions, and developed influential cultural traditions, including the development of sophisticated architecture, legal and moral codes, and different organized religions.
Classical Societies: Persia
Who were the first Persians? The empire of Persia arose in Iran around the 6 th century B.C.E. The Medes and the Persians migrated from central Asia to Persia (SW Iran). For a time, they lived under Babylonian and Assyrian rule.
Who were the first Persians? The Medes and Persians spoke Indo-European languages. They were part of the larger Indo-European migrations. They shared many traits with distant cousins, the Aryans. They were mostly pastoralists. They were organized into clans rather than states.
Who were the first Persians? The Medes and Persians had considerable military power. They were expert equestrians like other steppe people. They were expert archers even on horses. They often raided the people of Mesopotamia.
Who were the first Persians? When the Assyrians and Babylonian empires weakened in the 6 th century B.C.E., the Medes and Persians launched their military campaign.
Who established the first empire in Persia? Cyrus the Achaemenid ( B.C.E.) -from SW Iran -called Cyrus the Shepherd -Established first Persian Empire -Called Achaemenid after Cyrus clan.
Cyruss Persian Empire Cyrus the Achaemenid ( B.C.E.) -He conquered Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), central Asia, and Bactria (modern day Afghanistan). -Within 20 years, his empire stretched from India to the border of Egypt.
Who made the Achaemenid Empire the largest empire the world had ever seen? Darius the Great ( B.C.E.) Built the largest empire the world had ever seen. He was known for being a great administrator. The Achaemenid Empire had more than 70 different ethnic groups. He established an empire that provided for communication throughout.
What was unique about Darius capital at Persepolis? Darius the Great ( B.C.E.) Centralized administration Built capital at Persepolis near Pasargadae –Reception halls –Royal residences –Military quarters –treasury
Persepolis: Aerial View
Carving of Persian Soldiers at Persepolis
Ancient Texts at Persepolis
Persepolis Persepolis was the administrative center and monument to the dynasty. Bustled with ministers, advisors, diplomats, scribes, accountants, translators and bureaucratic officers.
Describe the political structure of Dariuss Empire Balance between strong central power and local administration Governors were appointed to oversee various regions. Twenty-tree administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps Most satraps were Persian but local officials were recruited for some administrative posts.
Political Structure of Dariuss Empire Regulated tax levies by standardizing laws. Each satrapy had to pay a set quantity of silver to the imperial court. He standardized coins which encouraged trade. He did not interfere with local laws but he sometimes modified them to make the empire run more smoothly.
What was unique about the Persian Royal Road? Construction began during the Achaemenid Empire. Parts were paved with stone. Stretched 1600 miles from Aegean Sea to Anatolia, through Mesopotamia to the capital of Persepolis in Iran. It took caravans 90 days to travel this road, lodging at inns along the well-policed route.
Persian Royal Road Courier service with 111 postal stations 25 to 30 miles apart on the Royal Road Each station had a supply of horses for couriers. This system facilitated trade with various regions.
What events led to the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in Persia? Cyrus and Darius had policies of tolerance. They respected values and beliefs of the people they ruled. Dariuss successor, Xerxes ( B.C.E.), flaunted his Persian identity and imposed his values on conquered lands. This created ill will, especially in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Fall of the Achaemenid Empire: The Persian Wars (500 – 479 B.C.E.) Ethnic Greeks in Ionian cities in Anatolia resented the Persian governors who oversaw their affairs. They rebelled, expelling or executing their governors. This rebellion launched a series of conflicts known as the Persian Wars.
Fall of the Achaemenid Empire: The Persian Wars (500 – 479 B.C.E.) For 150 years, the Persian empire sparred with the Greek cities. The Greek cities were too small and disunited to pose a serious threat to the Persian empire. The standoff ended with the rise of Alexander of Macedon or Alexander the Great.
Why was Alexander so Great? In 334 B.C.E. Alexander invaded Persia with an experienced army of 48,000 Macedonians. The Macedonians were well- disciplined and carried heavier arms with more sophisticated military tactics. Alexander confiscated the wealth in the treasury at Persepolis, proclaimed himself heir to the Achaemenid rulers and burned the city.
What became of the Achaemenid Empire after Alexanders death? After Alexanders death: His chief generals divided the empire into three large realms which they divided among themselves: The Seleucids The Parthians The Sasanids
What was the historical importance of the Seleucid Empire? The former Achaemenid empire went to Seleucus, a commander in Alexanders army. He retained the Achaemenid system of administration, taxation, imperial roads, and postal service. They founded new cities and attracted Greek colonists to occupy them.
What led to the fall of the Seleucids? The Seleucids had conflicts with native Persians, especially the ruling classes. The Satraps often revolted against Seleucid rule. The Seleucids lost their holdings in northern India. The semi-nomadic Parthians took over Iran during the third century B.C.E.
Describe the rule of the Parthians. Established strong empire in Iran and extended to Mesopotamia. Maintained many of the customs of the nomadic people from steppes of central Asia. Loosely organized into federation of leaders who met in councils. Skilled warriors.
The Parthians Improved grazing methods for horses which created stronger horses that could support soldiers with heavy armor. This development enabled them to fight off nomads from the steppes. The Parthians revolted against the Seleucids in the third century B.C.E. and by 155 B.C.E. had taken firm control of Iran to Mesopotamia.
The Parthians Followed example of the Achaemenids in running empire. Maintained elements of their own steppe traditions. Government not as centralized. Most authority rested in hands of clan leaders who often served as satraps who worked to build independent bases of power in their regions. For three centuries, Parthians presided over powerful empire between India and Mediterranean.
What were the contributions of the Sasanids? Claimed they were direct descendants of the Achaemenids. Conquered the Parthians in 224 C.E. and ruled until 651 reinstating much of the splendor of the Achaemenid empire. Rebuilt strong system of administration. Refurbished numerous cities. Merchants traded actively with people from east to west. Introduced rice, sugarcane, citrus fruits, eggplant, and cotton. Created buffer states between themselves and Roman empire.
Describe Persian Classical Society In the early days of the Achaemenid empire, Persian society reflected its origins on the steppes of central Asia. Family and clan relationships were extremely important in political and social affairs. Male warriors were the head of the clans. The development of a cosmopolitan empire complicated this structure.
What was the social hierarchy in Persian Classical Society? Imperial administration called for a new class of educated bureaucrats. This undermined old warrior elite. Persian cities were home to administrators, tax collectors, record keepers, translators, and high ranking officials. Bureaucrats shared power with warriors and clan leaders.
Persian Classical Society Clan Leaders and Bureaucrats Free Classes Artisans Craftsman Merchants Priests and Priestesses Low ranking civil servants Slaves
What was the role of women in Classical Persian Society? Married women and women of royalty were respected. There were some women who ruled. Some women were merchants and business women. When the Romans captured Persian soldiers, some were women. Some evidence indicates the practice of veiling in Persia during this time.
What about technological developments? Qanat – underground canals allowed cultivators to distribute water to fields without losing large quantities to evaporation through exposure to the sun and open air. Elaborate qanat system was maintained by slaves and laborers in the countryside.
What were some of the key economic developments of Persian Society? Agriculture was the foundation. Resources from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia and northern India helped Persia prosper. Barley and wheat were the most commonly cultivated crops. Peas, lentils, garlic, onions, pomegranates, pears, and apricots supplemented the cereals in diets. Beer and wine were the most common beverage.
Economic Developments of Persian Society Long-distance trade grew rapidly. Standardized of coins Availability of good trade routes. Newly constructed highways such as the Persian Royal Road. Sea routes through the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Arabian Sea Cities like Babylon were home to banks.
With whom did Persia trade? From India: gold, ivory, aromatics From Iran and Central Asia: lapis lazuli, turquoise and other stones From Mesopotamia: textiles, mirrors and jewelry From Anatolia: gold, silver, iron, copper and tin From Arabia: spices and aromatics From Egypt: grain, linen textiles, papyrus writing materials, gold, ebony, ivory From Greece: oil, wine, and ceramics
Describe early Persian religion. Celebrated natural elements and geographical features, i.e. the sun, the moon, the water, and especially fire. Recognized many of the same gods as the Aryans Priests performed sacrifices similar to those conducted by the brahmins in India. Used hallucinogenic agent called haoma in the same way Aryans used soma
How did Zoroastrianism develop in Persia? Attempt to address moral questions in a cosmopolitan world. Zarathustra, priest from aristocratic family, left family at 20 yeas of age to seek wisdom. He experienced visions and became convinced that the supreme god had chosen him as a prophet to spread message.
What were The Gathas? Originally transmitted orally by priests or magi. During Seleucid dynasty, magi began to preserve in writing. Hymns composed in honor of the various deities. Treatises on moral themes.
What were the basic beliefs of Zoroastrian? Not strict monotheists Recognized a supreme deity and creator of all good things. Spoke of six lesser deities. Explored battle between good and evil, as well as judgment, reward, punishment, heavenly paradise, demons, and place of pain and suffering. Encouraged enjoyment of earthly pleasures in moderation.
Zoroastrianism Attracted large numbers during 6 th century B.C.E. Popular with Persian aristocrats and ruling elites. Wealthy supported the building of temples. Large priesthood emerged and taught Zoroastrian values through oral transmission. Darius and other emperors closely associated themselves with Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian deity. Darius did not suppress other religious practices, however.