Presentation on theme: "Early Complex Societies Evolve into Classical Societies"— Presentation transcript:
1Early Complex Societies Evolve into Classical Societies “Complex societies integrated the lives of peoples over large regions. These early complex societies launched human history on a trajectory that it continues to follow today. States, social classes, technological innovation, specialization of labor, trade, and sophisticated cultural traditions rank among the most important legacies of these societies.”
2Formation of Classical Societies Approximately 1000 BCE early societiesAchieved high degrees of internal organizationExtended their authority over extremely large regionsElaborated influential cultural traditions
3Problems of Classical Societies Difficult to oversee vast territories without advanced technologies of transportation and communication.Military challenges arose from within classical societies themselves in the form of rebellion, civil war, or conflict.External threats came from nomadic and migratory people who sought to share in the wealth.Maintenance of equitable distribution of land and wealth
4Benefits of Classical Societies Increased trade encouraged economic integration within the societies.Establishment of regular commerce between peoples of different societies and cultural regions.Generated sophisticated cultural and religious traditions.
5The Empires of PersiaClassical Persian society began to take shape during the sixth century B.C.E. when rulers of the province of Persia in southwestern Iran embarked on a series of conquests that resulted in the formation of an enormous empire.
6How it all Began1000 BCE the Medes and the Persians migrated from central Asia to Perisa.They spoke Indo European languages and they were part of the larger Indo-European migration.They shared many traits with the Aryans who migrated into India.They were pastoralists.The Medes and Persians were people of considerable power.The were skilled equestrians.When the Assyrians and Babylonan empires weakened in the 6th century BCE, the Medes and Persians embarked on a successful imperial venture.
8Classical Society Emerges Social: Imperial administration required educated bureaucrats. Bulk of Persian society was free but included merchants, artisans, craftsmen. Slavery became more prominent.Economic: Agriculture was the foundation of Persian economy; long distance trade grew rapidly and linked lands from India to Egypt. Development of roadsReligion: Zoroastrianism emerged from the teachings of Zarathustra as a result of moral and religious thinkers adaptation to a more complex, cosmopolitan world. (“good words, good thoughts, good deeds”)
9Impact of Zoroastrianism Influenced religions of salvation.Omnipotent deity was responsible for all creations.The idea that a purely evil being worked against the creator god.The conviction that the forces of good will ultimately prevail over the power of evil after a climatic struggle.The doctrine that individuals will undergo judgment after which the morally upright will experience rewards in paradise while evildoers will suffer punishments in hell.
10Ahuramazda: The 'wise lord', the supreme god of the ancient Persians, whose cult was propagated by the legendary prophet Zarathustra.