3Silk Road Trade 200 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. Although it is suspected that significant trade occurred for about 1,000 years beforehand, the Silk Road opened around 139 B.C. once China was unified under the Han dynasty. It started at Changan (Xian) and ended at Antioch or Constantinople (Istanbul), passing by commercial cities such as Samarkand and Kashgar. It was very rare that caravans traveled for the whole distance since the trade system functioned as a chain. Merchants with their caravans were shipping goods back and forth from one trade center to the other. Major commodities traded included silk (of course), gold, jade, tea and spices. Since the transport capacity was limited, over long distance and often unsafe, luxury goods were the only commodities that could be traded. The Silk Road also served as a vector for the diffusion of ideas and religions (initially Buddhism and then Islam), enabling civilizations from Europe, the Middle East and Asia to interact.The initial use of the sea route linking the Mediterranean basin and India took place during the Roman Era. Between the 1st and 6th centuries, ships were sailing between the Red Sea and India, aided by summer monsoon winds. Goods were transshipped at the town of Berenike along the Red Sea and moved by camels inland to the Nile. From that point, river boats moved the goods to Alexandria, from which trade could be undertaken with the Roman Empire. From the 9th century, maritime routes controlled by the Arab traders emerged and gradually undermined the importance of the Silk Road. Since ships were much less constraining than caravans in terms of capacity, larger quantities of goods could be traded. The main maritime route started at Canton (Guangzhou), passed through Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea and then reached Alexandria. A significant feeder went to the Spice Islands (Moluccas) in today's Indonesia. The diffusion of Islam was also favored through trade as many rules of ethics and commerce are embedded in the religion.The Silk Road reached its peak during the Mongolian Empire (13th century) when China and Central Asia were controlled by Mongol Khans, which were strong proponent of trade even if they were ruthless conquerors. At the same time relationships between Europe and China were renewed, notably after the voyages of Marco Polo ( ).
4Silk Road Trade 200 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. Trade in silk grew under the Han Dynasty ( 202 BC - AD 220) in the first and second centuries C.E.Central Asian herders ran caravans linking trade between China and urban areas in Mesopotamia.The 7000 mile route spanned China, Central Asia, Northern India, and the Roman Empire. It connected the Yellow River Valley to the Mediterranean Sea and passed through present-day countries Iran, Iraq and Syria.
5Silk Road Trade 200 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. The Chinese traded their silk with the Indians for precious stones and metals such as jade, gold, and silver, and the Indians would trade the silk with the Roman EmpireBuddhism spread from India to China because of trade along the Silk Route.
6Indian Ocean Trade 500 BCE to 500 CE The Silk Roads included not only land routes but also sea lanes in the Indian Ocean.The Indian Ocean trade network included sailors from China Malaysia, Southeast Asia and Persia.Chinese pottery was traded along with Indian spices and ivory from India and Africa.
7Indian Ocean Trade 500 BCE to 500 CE Sailors used the monsoon winds to chart their course and carry out voyages that linked sections from East Africa to Southern China.The banana came to Africa from S.E. Asia via the Indian Ocean. The banana spread throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
9Trans-Saharan TradeIt is possible the camel arrived in Africa from Arabia in the first century B.C.E.Early Saharan trade patterns included the exchange of salt and palm oil.During the days of the Roman Empire, North Africa also supplied Italy with olives, wheat and wild animals.
12Silk Road Trade C.E.Silk Road Trade under the Tang and the Mongols was protected.Mongols kept Silk Road Trade safe.However, the Mongolswere also responsible for carrying the bubonic plague into Eurasia via the Silk Road.
14Indian Ocean Trade C.E.When Silk Road trade declined with the fall of the Mongols, Indian Ocean trade picked up.The Ming also renewed focus on Indian Ocean Trade with the voyagers of Zheng He. These voyages were short-lived.By the 13th century, the Bantu people arrived on the east coast where their language merged with Arabic languages from Muslim traders. This formed the Swahili languages.
16Trans-Saharan TradeThe Saharan trade extended from the Sub-Saharan West African kingdoms across the Sahara desert to Europe. The Saharan Trade linked such African empires as Ghana, Mali, and Songhay to the European world.Ghana possessed a large amount of gold.The Desert regions of present day Morocco and Algeria contained huge salt resources.The gold-salt trade between the Ghana Empire and the Arab desert merchants flourished.Despite the change in political control of West Africa due to the fall of the Ghana Empire and the rise of the Islamic Mali Empire in 1235, control of the gold-salt trade remained the economic lifeline of the region. Merchants established a second major gold-salt trade route northeast across the Sahara that passed through Tunis, and Cairo, and ended in Egypt's interior. This route complimented the traditional Western Sudan--Maghreb--Europe trade route. As the second trade route grew in popularity, Egypt's influence on the Western Sudan grew as well.While the kings of the Ghana Empire restricted gold's availablilty during their reigns, the rulers of Mali did not. In fact, Mansa Musa, the most famous ruler of the Mali Empire, spent and gave so much gold during his celebrated hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) in 1324 that he severely lowered the value of the precious metal in Egypt .
18Trans-Saharan Trade – 600 - 1450 Just as Buddhism reached the Chinese Empire via Indian merchants, Islam reached black West Africa through Arab merchants on caravan routes.During the Ghana, Mali, and Songhay empires, Arab merchants brought the Koran and the written language Arabic to the oral culture of each empire.By the 13th century, rulers of western empires had converted to Islam, while common people remained true to their polytheistic beliefs.Merchants transported more than valuable commodities along the trans-Saharan routes. Just as Buddhism reached the Chinese Empire via Indian merchants travelling the Silk Road, Islam reached black West Africa through Arab Merchants on Saharan caravan routes. During the Ghana, Mali, and Songhay empires Arab merchants brought the Koran and the written language Arabic to the traditionally oral cultures each empire encompassed.Although the common citizens usually felt no pressure to convert from their traditional religions, royal families and merchants often did convert to Islam in order to curry favor with the Arab traders. Kings and merchants understood the importance of extensive trade to their region.
20Columbian ExchangeTrade network that exchanged crops, livestock, and diseases between the Eastern and Western hemispheres.Tobacco was introduced to the Eastern Hemisphere.American food crops such as maize and sweet potatoes spread to China and parts of Africa.White potatoes spread to Europe and manioc to Africa.Coffee, sugar cane, wheat, rice, and bananas made their way across the Atlantic from the Eastern to the Western Hemisphere.Livestock such as cattles, horses, sheep, and pigs came to the Americas.Crops boosted population growth in Eastern Hemisphere.Epidemic diseases came to the Americas on the Columbian Exchange.Within 50 years after the arrival of Columbus, 90% of the native peoples had died from disease.
22Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade The Atlantic slave trade was part of a triangular trade that involved three segments.The Middle Passage was the journey that Africans took across the Atlantic to the Americas.
23Atlantic Slave TradeAs many as 25 percent of the slaves who came from central Africa died on the march to the coast.It is believed that 20 percent of slaves died on the Middle Passage from illness or suicide.If supplies ran low aboard ship, some slaves were thrown overboard.
25Latin American TradeAfter the Latin American independence movements, the U.S. and Great Britain both formed trading partnerships with these new countries.The sugar plantations of the Caribbean and Brazil were at the heart of Latin American trade with Europe.
26Latin American TradeThe sugar plantations of the Caribbean and Brazil were at the heart of Latin American trade with Europe.Brazil also produced cotton and cacao for European use.Cuban tobacco and sugarMexican copper and silverArgentine beefLatin American rubber
27Trade with the Islamic World 1750-1914 Trade in the Ottoman Empire decreased due to disinterest in industrialization and the inability of artisans to compete with European imports.Egyptian commerce suffered from European competition.
28Trade in ChinaThe Qing dynasty lifted restrictions on trade which had been established by the Ming.Trade in Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain brought in large quantities of silver which was the basis of the Chinese economy.The Chinese purchased opium from British merchants in India.British victory in the Opium War resulted in the opening of China to European trade.
29Trading Blocs 1914-present Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) regulates oil prcies and controls oil distribution.European Union was organized to reduce tariffs among member nations and create a common tariff policy for other world nations.North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) abolished tariffs between Canada, the US, and Mexico.The World Trade Organization was established in 1995 to organize world trade.