Presentation on theme: "Models of Urban Structure"— Presentation transcript:
1 Models of Urban Structure Cities exhibit functional structureCentral business district (CBD)Central citySuburbNorth American cities?3 models
2 Louis Wirth Urban Settings Have 3 Characteristics: 1. Large size: Won’t know most people living in a city.2. High Density: each person has a role essential for the urban system to function smoothly, people compete for survival in limited space.3. Social Heterogeneity:-people pursue an unusual profession-people pursue a different sexual orientation-people pursue cultural interests
3 Urban Physical Characteristics Legal Boundary: A city is an urban settlement that has legally been incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.2. Continuously Built up Area: An urbanized area is a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs, pop exceeds 1000 persons per sq. mile.
4 Some MSAs overlap: BOSWASH CORRIDOR -southern California -German Ruhr 3. Functional Area: zone of influence extends beyond legal boundaries and adjacent built-up jurisdictionsMETROPOLITAN STATISITICAL AREA (MSA)--central city with a pop of 50,000-county within which the city is located-adjacent counties with a high pop density and a large % of residents working in the central city.Smaller urban areas are called:MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA 10,000-50,000Some MSAs overlap: BOSWASH CORRIDOR-southern California German Ruhr-southern Great Lakes Japan’s Tokaido-Rabdstad in the Netherlands
5 4. A city has more functional specialization than a town and a larger hinterland and greater centrality. - a well-defined commercial center -a central business district -suburbs (subsidiary urban areas surrounding and connected to the central city.) Many suburbs are residential but some have their own commercial centers or shopping malls (technoburbs)
6 non-residential activities Concentric Zone Model: A city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings Use census tracts, 5,000 people in neighborhood boundaries. These tell us where people tend to lives.E.W. Burgessnon-residential activitiesIndustry & poorer quality housing (immigrants new to the city live here 1st)Stable working classMiddle class
7 Sector Model: Homer Hoyt A city grows in a series of sectors. Certain areas are more attractive to certain activities, by environmental factors, or by chance. As a city grows, activities expand in sectors out from the CBD. Industrial and retailing are in sectors by good transportation lines.
8 Multiple Nuclei: C.D. Harris and E.L. Ulman A city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve. Some activities are attracted to particular nodes while others avoid them. Ex: Airport=hotels & warehouses Ex: University=well-educated residents, book stores and pizza joints.
9 Modeling the North American City Urban realmsThe “galactic city”/peripheral modelEarly post-war period, reduced interaction between the central city and suburban citiesOuter cities became more self-sufficient
10 Models of Urban Structure Outer city growth since 1960sBy 1973, American suburbs surpassed central cities in total employmentOuter cities = “edge cities”Equal partners in city shaping processesIndustrial factories and complexes(office parks)HotelsAmusement parksMallstechnoburbsTyson’s Corner
11 Modeling the Modern Latin American City Law of the Indies 1575Latin American cities were designed after European cities, explorers came from Portugal and SpainCentered on a church and central plaza
13 Characteristics of Squatter Cities Housing materials are collected from available resources: corrugated tinLittle sanitationNo running waterNo Cooking facilitiesIllegal hookup to electricity, if anyNo political voiceLack of social services
14 Spatial distribution of Squatter Cities On the periphery of the cities in LDCs around the world.In Europe and Latin America the rich choose to live in the culturally-rich inner city, the opposite is sometimes true in North American cities
20 African cities to triple in size.. By % of Africans will live in citiesIn 5 years Lagos, Nigeria will be Africa’s largest city 12.4 mil199.5 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa live in slumsUN Habitat’s State of African Cities 2010 Report: urbanization is occurring faster in Africa than anywhere else in the world.
21 Slum Dwellers in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia have dropped from 20 Slum Dwellers in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia have dropped from 20.8 million in 1990 to 11.8 million in 2010Growth of cities:Pull Factors: Attractive location of cities, jobs, culturePush Factors: agricultural reform, poverty in rural areasProblems in the cities: overcrowding, irregular supply of water, inadequate infrastructure
22 Lagos, Nigeria: Population 18 City within a city: Eko Atlantic Project 1 ½ mile into the Atlantic rocks are poured to reclaim land that has been eroded for the last centuryBuilding a 7 kilometer wall to hold back the waves400,000 will live hereConstant water, power, roads, light rail system
23 ResourcesDe Blij, Harm, J. (2007). Human Geography People, Place and Culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Domosh, Mona, Neumann, Roderic, Price, Patricia, & Jordan-Bychkov, The Human Mosaic, A Cultural Approach to Human Geography. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Fellman, Jerome, D., Getis, Arthur, & Getis, Judith, Human Geography, Landscapes of Human Activities. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Pulsipher, Lydia Mihelic and Alex M. and Pulsipher, World Regional Geography, Global Patterns, Local Lives. W.H. Freeman and Company New York Rubenstein, James M. (2008). An introduction to human geography The culturallandscape. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Benewick, Robert, & Donald, Stephanie H. (2005). The State ofChina Atlas. Berkeley: University of California Press.