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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)
Chapter 8 Learning AP Psychology Lawton Chiles High School Mrs. Womble

2 Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience experience (nurture) is the key to learning

3 Association We learn by association Associative Learning
Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 yrs ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences

4 Association Learning to associate two events Event 1 Event 2
Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics

5 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Two related events: Lightning Stimulus 1 Thunder Stimulus 2 Result after repetition We see lightning Stimulus We wince anticipating thunder Response We learn to associate two stimuli

6 Operant Conditioning Response: Pushing vending machine button Consequence: Receiving a candy bar We learn to associate a response and its consequence

7 Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science
generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today

8 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions

9 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
Before Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) No salivation During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) CS (tone) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) CR (salivation)

10 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Pavlov’s device for recording salivation

11 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli lightning and thunder tone and food begins with a reflex a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex

12 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) effective stimulus that unconditionally-automatically and naturally- triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth

13 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus

14 Conditioning Acquisition
the initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened in classical conditioning, the phase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

15 Conditioning Extinction diminishing of a CR
in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

16 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR

17 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization tendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar responses

18 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Discrimination in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal and UCS in operant conditioning, responding differently to stimuli that signal a behavior will be reinforced or will not be reinforced

19 Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 Hind
Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated

20 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CR Kiss)

21 Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients
UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CR

22 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Law of Effect
type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

23 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior complex or voluntary behaviors
push button, perform complex task operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning

24 Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect developed behavioral technology

25 Operant Chamber Skinner Box
soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a food or water reward contains a device to record responses

26 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer Shaping Successive Approximations
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal Successive Approximations reward behaviors that increasingly resemble desired behavior

27 Principles of Reinforcement
Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus satisfies a biological need Secondary Reinforcer conditioned reinforcer learned through association with primary reinforcer

28 Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs learning occurs rapidly extinction occurs rapidly Partial Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction

29 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay

30 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

31 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

32 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz

33 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80

34 Punishment Punishment
aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior

35 Problems with Punishment
Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's suppressed- behavior returns when punishment is no longer eminent Causes increased aggression- shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems- Explains why aggressive delinquents and abusive parents come from abusive homes

36 Problems with Punishment
Creates fear that can generalize to desirable behaviors, e.g. fear of school, learned helplessness, depression Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior- reinforcement tells you what to do--punishment tells you what not to do- Combination of punishment and reward can be more effective than punishment alone Punishment teaches how to avoid it

37 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one’s environment example- after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

38 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

39 Latent Learning Average errors Days 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12
10 8 6 4 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Days

40 Operant vs Classical Conditioning
The Response Involuntary, automatic “Voluntary,” operates on environment Acquisition Associating events; Associating response with a CS announces UCS. Consequence (reinforcer or punisher). Cognitive Subjects develop expectation Subjects develop expectation that processes that CS signals the arrival of a response will be reinforced or UCS. Punished; they also exhibit latent learning, without reinforcement Biological Natural predispositions Organisms best learn behaviors predispositions contain what stimuli and similar to their natural behaviors; responses can easily be unnatural behaviors instinctively associated. drift back toward natural ones. Extinction CR decreases when CS is Responding decreases when repeatedly presented alone. reinforcement stops.

41 Observational Learning
learning by observing and imitating others Modeling process of observing and imitating behavior Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior


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