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Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning zAP Psychology zLawton Chiles High School zMrs. Womble.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning zAP Psychology zLawton Chiles High School zMrs. Womble."— Presentation transcript:


2 Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning zAP Psychology zLawton Chiles High School zMrs. Womble

3 Learning z Learning yrelatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience yexperience (nurture) is the key to learning

4 Association zWe learn by association yOur minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence yAristotle 2000 years ago yJohn Locke and David Hume 200 yrs ago zAssociative Learning ylearning that two events occur together xtwo stimuli xa response and its consequences

5 Association zLearning to associate two events Event 1Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics

6 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zWe learn to associate two stimuli Two related events: Lightning Stimulus 1 Thunder Stimulus 2 Result after repetition We see lightning Stimulus We wince anticipating thunder Response

7 Operant Conditioning zWe learn to associate a response and its consequence Response: Pushing vending machine button Consequence: Receiving a candy bar

8 Behaviorism zJohn B. Watson yviewed psychology as objective science xgenerally agreed-upon consensus today yrecommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes xnot universally accepted by all schools of thought today

9 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zIvan Pavlov y yRussian physician/ neurophysiologist yNobel Prize in 1904 ystudied digestive secretions

10 Pavlovs Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During ConditioningAfter Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)

11 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zPavlovs device for recording salivation

12 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zClassical Conditioning yorganism comes to associate two stimuli xlightning and thunder xtone and food ybegins with a reflex ya neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex yneutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex

13 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zUnconditioned Stimulus (UCS) yeffective stimulus that unconditionally- automatically and naturally- triggers a response zUnconditioned Response (UCR) yunlearned, naturally occurring automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus xsalivation when food is in the mouth

14 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zConditioned Stimulus (CS) ypreviously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response zConditioned Response (CR) ylearned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus

15 Conditioning zAcquisition ythe initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened yin classical conditioning, the phase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response yin operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

16 Conditioning zExtinction ydiminishing of a CR yin classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS yin operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

17 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR

18 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zSpontaneous Recovery yreappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR zGeneralization ytendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar responses

19 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning zDiscrimination yin classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal and UCS yin operant conditioning, responding differently to stimuli that signal a behavior will be reinforced or will not be reinforced

20 Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds Hind paw PelvisShoulder Front paw ThighTrunkForeleg Part of body stimulated

21 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)

22 Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)

23 Operant Conditioning zOperant Conditioning ytype of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment zLaw of Effect yThorndikes principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

24 Operant Conditioning zOperant Behavior ycomplex or voluntary behaviors xpush button, perform complex task yoperates (acts) on environment yproduces consequences zRespondent Behavior yoccurs as an automatic response to stimulus ybehavior learned through classical conditioning

25 Operant Conditioning zB.F. Skinner ( ) yelaborated Thorndikes Law of Effect ydeveloped behavioral technology

26 Operant Chamber zSkinner Box ysoundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a food or water reward ycontains a device to record responses

27 Operant Conditioning zReinforcer yany event that strengthens the behavior it follows zShaping yconditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal zSuccessive Approximations yreward behaviors that increasingly resemble desired behavior

28 Principles of Reinforcement zPrimary Reinforcer yinnately reinforcing stimulus ysatisfies a biological need zSecondary Reinforcer yconditioned reinforcer ylearned through association with primary reinforcer

29 Schedules of Reinforcement zContinuous Reinforcement yreinforcing the desired response each time it occurs ylearning occurs rapidly yextinction occurs rapidly zPartial Reinforcement yreinforcing a response only part of the time yresults in slower acquisition ygreater resistance to extinction

30 Schedules of Reinforcement zFixed Ratio (FR) yreinforces a response only after a specified number of responses yfaster you respond the more rewards you get ydifferent ratios yvery high rate of responding ylike piecework pay

31 Schedules of Reinforcement zVariable Ratio (VR) yreinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses yaverage ratios ylike gambling, fishing yvery hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

32 Schedules of Reinforcement zFixed Interval (FI) yreinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed yresponse occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

33 Schedules of Reinforcement zVariable Interval (VI) yreinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals yproduces slow steady responding ylike pop quiz

34 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80

35 Punishment zPunishment yaversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows ypowerful controller of unwanted behavior

36 Problems with Punishment zPunished behavior is not forgotten, it's suppressed- behavior returns when punishment is no longer eminent zCauses increased aggression- shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems- Explains why aggressive delinquents and abusive parents come from abusive homes

37 Problems with Punishment zCreates fear that can generalize to desirable behaviors, e.g. fear of school, learned helplessness, depression zDoes not necessarily guide toward desired behavior- reinforcement tells you what to do-- punishment tells you what not to do- Combination of punishment and reward can be more effective than punishment alone zPunishment teaches how to avoid it

38 Cognition and Operant Conditioning zCognitive Map ymental representation of the layout of ones environment yexample- after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it zLatent Learning ylearning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

39 Cognition and Operant Conditioning zOverjustification Effect ythe effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do ythe person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

40 Latent Learning Average errors Days

41 Operant vs Classical Conditioning ExtinctionCR decreases when CS isResponding decreases when repeatedly presented alone.reinforcement stops. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning The ResponseInvoluntary, automaticVoluntary, operates on environment AcquisitionAssociating events;Associating response with a CS announces UCS.Consequence (reinforcer or punisher). CognitiveSubjects develop expectation Subjects develop expectation that processesthat CS signals the arrival ofa response will be reinforced or UCS.Punished; they also exhibit latent learning, without reinforcement BiologicalNatural predispositions Organisms best learn behaviors predispositionscontain what stimuli andsimilar to their natural behaviors; responses can easily beunnatural behaviors instinctively associated.drift back toward natural ones.

42 Observational Learning zObservational Learning ylearning by observing and imitating others zModeling yprocess of observing and imitating behavior zProsocial Behavior ypositive, constructive, helpful behavior yopposite of antisocial behavior

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