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The Integumentary System Mr. West Anatomy and Physiology.

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2 The Integumentary System Mr. West Anatomy and Physiology

3 What are the primary functions of the Integumentary System? Protection: provides 3 types of barriers – Chemical barriers: low pH of skin secretions slows bacterial growth. Human defensin is an antibiotic that destroys bacteria (produced by human skin)

4 Physical barriers – Physical barriers: very few substance are able to enter the skin. Substances able to pass. Lipid-soluble substances: oxygen, carbon dioxide, some vitamins Oleoresins- poisons (poison ivy) Organic solvents- dry-cleaning fluid, paint thinner Salts of heavy metals- lead, mercury, nickel Penetration enhancers- drug agents that help substances into the body.

5 Biological barriers Langerhans cells- act as macrophages police the epidermis for viruses and bacteria.

6 Lets take a closer look!

7 Functions cont. Thermoregulation- skin contains sweat glands that secrete watery fluid, that when evaporated, cools the body. Sensation- Skin contains sensory receptors that detect cold, touch, and pain. Vitamin D synthesis- cholesterol in the skin is bombarded by sunlight and converted to vitamin D (calcium cannot be absorbed from digestive tract)

8 Functions cont. Blood reservoir- blood will be moved from skin to muscles during strenuous activity. Excretion- Sweating is an important outlet for wastes such as salt and nitrogen containing compounds. (urine)

9 Why is Skin Important? Regulates Body Temperature – What happens when it is hot? – What happens when it is cold? Sense Organ – Why is sense important in the skin? Protective Layer for Everything Underneath – Protects body from physical, chemical and microbial damage

10 Are We Alone?

11 What are the major characteristics of the skin? Waterproof, stretchable,washable, and permanent-press, that automatically repairs small cuts, rips and burns and is guaranteed to last a lifetime. Surface area of up to 2.2 square meters 11 pounds 7% of total body weight Pliable yet tough

12 What are the 3 major layers of the skin? Epidermis (epi-upon) – Composed of epithelial tissue (stratified squamous) – Non-vascularized Dermis – underlies the epidermis – Tough leathery layer composed of fibrous connective tissue – Good supply of blood Hypodermis (not considered skin) – Made of adipose and areolar tissue – Stores fat, anchors skin, protects against blows

13 Epidermis Dermis Basement membrane

14 Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis

15 What are the different types of cells in the epidermis? Keratinocytes – Produce a fibrous protein called keratin – Are formed in the lowest levels of the epidermis. – Pushed upward by the production of new cells beneath them. – Become dead and scale-like – Millions rub off everyday

16 What are the different types of cells in the epidermis? Melanocytes – Synthesizes the pigment melanin – Melan-black – Can transfer melanin to keratinocytes – Protects skin from ultraviolet light. melanocyte Melanin in keratinocytes

17 What are the different types of cells in the epidermis? Langerhans cells – Formed in bone marrow. – Move to the skin – Macrophages Langerhans cell

18 What are the different types of cells in the epidermis? Merkel Cells – Has a spiked appearance – Connected to nerve cells from dermis – Function as sensory receptors for touch.

19 What are the layers of the epidermis? Stratum basale: deepest layer of the epidermis, undergoes rapid cell division. Stratum spinosum: intermediate layer, contain spiny shaped keratinocytes. Stratum corneum: outermost layer cells thick of dead keratinized cells. – Dandruff – Average person shed 40 pounds of these cells in their lifetime. – Everything you see on a human is dead!


21 What are the characteristics of the dermis? Made up of connective tissue Richly supplied with blood vessels and lymph vessels Has hair follicles, oil and sweat glands and sensory receptors Ridges formed from the papillary layer can form finger prints.


23 Reticular layer of the dermis Filled with dense irregular fibrous connective tissue Matrix is filled with thick bundles of collagen fibers (give the skin strength) Less dense regions are called lines of cleavage or tension lines; surgeons use these to make incisions because they heal quicker.

24 What causes the color of skin? 3 pigments contribute to skin color – Melanin- protein pigment (natural sunscreen) Can range in color from yellow to reddish-brown to black Everyone has the same number of melanocytes but make varying amounts and colors (differences in skin color) Increased melanin production can caused by sunlight. – Carotene-yellow to orange pigment found in carrots. Most commonly found in the palms or soles. Most intense when large amounts of carotene-rich foods are eaten. – Hemoglobin- Red blood gives a pinkish hue to fair skin

25 What are the major appendages of the skin? Sweat glands Sebaceous glands Hairs Nails

26 What are the types of glands found in the skin? Sweat glands-sudoriferous – Merocrine- common sweat glands Hot sweats vs. Cold sweats – Apocrine- produce sweat plus a milky or yellowish substance composed of fat and protein. Found in the arm pits and genitalia Thought to be scent glands. – Ceruminous- produce cerumen (ear wax) – Mammary glands- produce milk Sebaceous glands- oil glands (sebum) – Softens and lubricates hair and skin – Slows water loss and kills bacteria


28 Why is hair useful? Senses insects that land on the skin. Hair on the head protects the head from a blow, sunlight and heat loss. Eyelashes shield the eye Nose hairs filter the air

29 What are hairs? Made from hair follicles Made of dead keratinized skin cells Two parts shaft and root Shaft has 3 layers of cells – Medulla(central core) – Cortex (bulky layer) – Cuticle (heavily keratinized; protects hair)

30 Why do humans have arrector pili muscles?


32 What are the parts of nails? A nail is a scalelike modification of the epidermis Made of tightly compressed keratinized cells Useful tools to pick up small objects or scratch an itch. Nail matrix is the region responsible for nail growth.



35 Skin Injury What happens when you get a cut? – Epidermis (mild): – Dermis (severe):

36 P soriasis is a skin condition where the immune system pushes newly formed skin cells to the surface at a faster rate than they are used to.

37 Eczema is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the upper layers of skin.dermatitis

38 Merkel Skin Cancer Pemphigus massive bark-like warts

39 Skin Cancer Benign tumors such as warts and moles are not serious. Malignant tumors can start on the skin and invade other body areas. Crucial risk factor- overexposure to UV radiation

40 Types of Skin Cancer Basal cell carcinoma- most common, 30% of all white skin people get it. – Arises from the stratum basale layer of the skin – 99% curable if caught early – Dome shaped nodules that form an ulcer in the center. Squamous Cell carcinoma- – Arise from stratum spinosum – Grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed – Small red rounded elevation on the skin

41 Skin Cancer Types cont. Melanoma – Cancer of melanocytes (very dangerous) – 5% of skin cancers but rising fast – Can arise from preexisting moles – Appears as a spreading brown or black patch – Chance of survival is poor if the lesion is greater than 4 mm thick

42 Basal Cell Carcinoma

43 Lesion removed from patient Basal Cell Carcinoma

44 Squamous cell carcinoma

45 Skin-Melanocytic Tumors

46 What is the ABCD rule? Used for recognizing melanoma A-Asymmetry: two sides of the pigmented mole do not match B-Border irregularity: borders are not smooth C- Color: lesion has a multiple of colors D- Diameter the spot is larger than 6 mm in diameter (size of a pencil eraser)


48 Melanoma

49 What are the 3 types of burns? First-degree burns: only the epidermis is damaged. Redness, swelling and pain are common. (sunburn) 2-3 days to heal Second-degree burns: epidermis and upper layers of dermis. Blistering can occur. 3-4 weeks to heal. Third-degree burns: involves the entire thickness of the skin.

50 Third-degree burn Second-degree burns


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