Presentation on theme: "A collaborative project between the Florida Department of Education and the University of South Florida FloridaRtI.usf.edu."— Presentation transcript:
1 A collaborative project between the Florida Department of Education and the University of South FloridaFloridaRtI.usf.edu
2 Outcomes of State Efforts Introductory RtI TAP disseminated on March 3, 2006; can be accessed at:Collaboration and Emphasis on General Education Involvement/LeadershipProblem-Solving/RtI Florida Project is accessible at:PS/RtI –Teaching Learning Connection (TLC): academic focusPositive Behavior Support: behavior focusState-wide PS/RtI Implementation PlanRelevant Rule Revisions: E/BD, Proposed Administrative, Draft SLD, Draft LI
4 State-Level Collaborators Bureau of School Improvement, FLDOEJust Read, Florida!, FLDOEFlorida Center for Reading Research, FSULD Research Project, FSUPS/RtI Pilot Project, USFRtI-TLC Project, UCFPositive Behavior Support Project, USFStudent Support Services Project, USFFL Center for Research – STEM, FSUOffice of Math and Science, FLDOEBureau of Exceptional Student Education and Student Services, FLDOEReading First Professional Development, RFPDFamily Network on Disabilities of Florida, FNDFlorida Educators Association, FEA
5 What does the State Plan do? Provides an overview of Florida’s perspective and approach to RtI.Connects and integrates terms and concepts with existing initiatives.Specifies foundational beliefs about how to create ideal conditions to promote student achievement.Calls for active engagement of parents.Discusses positive impact on school improvement, student achievement, and disproportionate representation of minority populations in special education programs.
6 What does the State Plan Do? Specifies State and District responsibilities in the scaling-up process.Outlines the state team infrastructure.Policy leadership teamImplementation teamAdvisory groupReports current and future activities.Suggests flexible funding considerations.Applies to English language learners (ELL).Applies to Special Education eligibility.Contains links to resources and related efforts to assist the reader in next steps.
7 Tools to Support Efforts District/School Self-Assessment ToolTake a few minutes and complete the Self Assessment for your schoolProvide our baselineProvide input for our district’s plan
8 National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2005 What is RtI?RTI is the practice of (1) providing high quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and, (2) using level of performance and learning rate over time to (3) make important educational decisions to guide instruction.National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2005
9 Core Principles of RtIA process designed to maximize achievement for all studentsFrequent data collection on student performanceEarly identification of students at riskEarly intervention (K-3)Multi-tiered model of service deliveryResearch-based, scientifically validated instruction/interventionsOngoing progress monitoring - interventions evaluated and modifiedData-based decision making - all decisions made with dataFocused on outcomes
10 Response to Intervention is Not: About the identification of LDAn instructional program. It is a framework to make decisions about instructional needs based on student dataA way to avoid special education placementA hoop to jump through to ensure Sp. Ed. placementIntended to promote or encourage placement for studentsIntended to focus only on students who are below expected levels of proficiencyPossible to implement alone; it is a cooperative effort of teachers, administrators, and support staff
11 What’s it look like? What does it do? Characteristics of a Building with RtIa. Frequent data collection on students in critical areasb. Early identification of students at riskc. Early intervention (kindergarten)d. Interventions evaluated and modified (if necessary) frequentlye. Tiered levels of service deliveryf. All decisions made with or verified by dataOutcomes of RtIa. Improved rate of academic and behavior performanceb. Significantly reduced disproportionalityc. Reductions in special education referrals and placements
13 Ideas What We Used to Think What We Now Know Educational disability results from the complex interaction between curriculum, instruction, the environment, and learner characteristics.Thorough understanding of the intrapersonal (within person) causes of educational disabilities is the most critical factor in determining appropriate treatment.Educational needs vary widely within and across disability categoriesPersons within disability categories have similar educational needs that are different in educationally important ways from persons in other disability categories.Aptitude by Treatment interactions (ATIs) have not been proven.AuditoryLearnersAuditory ReadingMethodsVisualVisual ReadingKinestheticReadingMatching treatments to underlying characteristics will result in maximally effective interventions.
14 Traditional vs. Response to Intervention JJInterventionLInterventionLConsider ESETraditional-JMonitorProgressI put some more animation on this slide. Must be in regular presentation mode to view it.JMonitorProgressInterventionLConsider ESEIfnecessaryRegularEducationInterventionLJIntervention14Response to Intervention-
15 Systemic v. Individual Student Problem How we got here…TeacherRecognizesProblemReferral forPsychoeducationalEvaluationPsychoeducationalEvaluationConductedInterventionBrainstormingInterventionBrainstormingEligibilityDeterminationData AnalyzedTo DetermineSystemic v. Individual Student ProblemNote the examples of two separate systems.The top line exemplifies our current continuum or “process” for addressing the needs of struggling learners. There is no true mention of assessment based on the previously discussed principles. It highlights brainstorming for possible interventions, only to result in testing for the purpose of eligibility…Remember, in this instance testing is done for the purpose of obtaining a score…The bottom continuum demonstrates how assessment is woven into the fabric of this process. Teams use assessment data from the very beginning by examining available data from screening measures. Analysis is conducted and additional assessments are administered as deemed appropriate. Intervention is designed, implemented, monitored and evaluated. Assessment has a role in each of these activities. Should the need still exist, as determined by the PS team, determination of disability characteristics may be indicated. In the event eligibility is declared, the child is delivered to the door of special education with the knowledge of what and how to instruct the student.Teacher/School LevelScreeningRecognizesProblemDisabilityCharacteristicsDeterminedMonitoring ofResponse toInterventionMonitoring ofResponse toInterventionDiscovery ofStudentNeedInformedInterventionInterventionRevisionEligibilityDeterminationAssessment15
16 A Shift in Thinking The central question is not: “What about the students is causing the performance discrepancy?”but“What about the interaction of the curriculum, instruction, learners and learning environment should be altered so that the students will learn?”This shift alters everything elseKen Howell
17 We Need A New LogicBegin with the idea that the purpose of the system is student achievementAcknowledge that student needs exist on a continuum rather than in typological groupingsOrganize resources to make educational resources available in direct proportion to student needDavid Tilly 2004
18 Three Tiered Model of School Supports: Example of an Infrastructure Resource InventoryAcademic SystemsBehavioral SystemsTier III: Comprehensive and Intensive Interventions( Few Students)Students who need Individualized InterventionsTier III: Intensive Interventions( Few Students)Students who need Individual InterventionTier II: Strategic Interventions(Some Students)Students who need more support in addition to the core curriculumTier II: Targeted Group Interventions(Some Students)Students who need more support in addition to school-wide positive behavior programArrows = movement in tiers is fluid (up, down, around)Tier I: Core CurriculumAll studentsTier I: Universal InterventionsAll students; all settings18
19 Three Tiered Model of School Supports: Example of an Infrastructure Resource InventoryAcademic SystemsBehavioral SystemsTier 3: Comprehensive and Intensive InterventionsIndividual Students or Small Group (2-3)Reading: Scholastic Program, Reading,Mastery, ALL, Soar to Success, Leap Track, FundationsTier 3: Intensive InterventionsIndividual CounselingFBA/BIPTeach, Reinforce, and Prevent (TRP)Assessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%Tier 2: Strategic InterventionsStudents not responding to core curriculumReading: Soar to Success, Leap Frog, CRISS strategies, CCC Lab Math: Extended DayWriting: Small Group, CRISS strategies, and “Just Write Narrative” by K. RobinsonTier 2: Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)Small Group CounselingParent Training (Behavior & Academic)Bullying Prevention ProgramFBA/BIP Classroom Management Techniques, Professional DevelopmentSmall Group Parent Training ,Data5-10%Tier 1: Core CurriculumAll studentsReading: Houghton MifflinMath: HarcourtWriting: Six Traits Of WritingLearning Focus StrategiesTier 1: Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsCommittee, Preventive, proactive strategiesSchool Wide Rules/ Expectations Positive Reinforcement System (Tickets & 200 Club)School Wide Consequence System School Wide Social Skills Program, Data (Discipline, Surveys, etc.) Professional Development (behavior)Classroom Management Techniques,Parent Training80-90%Students
20 Tiers of Service Delivery 1. Problem Identification- What’s the problem?Tier ITier IITier III4. Response toIntervention-Is it working?2. ProblemAnalysis-Why is it occurring?A combination of the problem solving process circle and the concentric tiers. Clearer labels for the tiers.3. Intervention Design/Implementation-What are we going to do about it?20
21 Problem SolvingA systematic and structured process that uses the skills of professionals from different disciplines to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention plans that result in the significant improvement (closing the gap) of student performance
22 Implications for Activities at Various Tiers MoreLessInstructional TimeApplicable evidence-based interventionsMeasurement FrequencyMeasurement PrecisionGroup SizeMeasurement FocusDepth of Problem AnalysisPrimary point here is that we have far more base of evidence for Tier One and standard protocol interventions than we do for individual student interventions. Thus, our evidence base, when intervening with particularly idiosyncratic individuals, is our progress monitoring or response to intervention data. So, if the research base relating to an individual’s specific difficulty is sparse, we have to create our own evidence of effectiveness through careful progress monitoring.22LessMore22
23 Step 1 – Problem Identification: What is the problem? To identify a problem, you need to start with three pieces of dataExpected level of performanceStudent level of performancePeer level of performanceIs this an individual student problem or a larger systemic problem?
24 Problem ID Peers Expectation Student % compliance weeks 24 This and the two slides following. Revised the y-axis to reflect 0% to 100% and labeled the behavior being measured as ‘compliance’ and the x-axis as ‘weeks’weeks24
25 Step 2 - Problem Analysis: Why is it occurring? The development of hypotheses about probable causes for the identified problemAssessment data are collected to validate hypothesesWhy is replacement behavior not occurring?
26 Problem Analysis The problem is occurring because ________________. If ____________ would occur, the problem would be reduced.
27 Step 2 - Problem Analysis: Why is it occurring? RIOTbyICELDOMAINSRReviewIInterviewOObserveTTestInstructionCCurriculumEEnvironmentLLearnerTeams should not be LIMITED by what is on this paper—Review line by line (ICELxRIOT)…
28 Step 3 – Intervention Design: What are we going to do about it? Effective teaching strategies consider both what to teach and how to teach it.Making good decisions will increase student progress.It is critical that the instruction be matched to the problem.Howell & Nolet, 2000
29 Step 3 – Intervention Design: What are we going to do about it? Match intervention type and intensity to student(s), setting, problemInterventions must focus on teaching desired behaviorSelect evidence-based interventions that match context of school/classroom cultureProvide support for implementationCoachingEvaluation of implementation integrityWhat are we going to do about it?Make sure interventions are cumulative, not separateWhat is the plan for addressing behavior concerns pro-actively? i.e. Look at data early in the year and assess trends frequently thereafter??
30 Step 4 – Progress Monitoring: Is it working? Making instructional / intervention decisions based on review and analysis of student dataProgress monitoring always includes graphingGoalClassroomIntervention IClassroomIntervention 230
31 Response to Intervention GoalClassroom InterventionPositiveQuestionablePerformanceExpected RatePoorObserved RateTime31
32 Application Issues: Challenges - Data CollectionWhat is collected and who collects it?How frequently is it collected?OrganizationDisaggregated by grade, gender, race, language, SES?Designed to answer specific questions (Tier 1/2 effectiveness?
33 Application Issues: Challenges - Integrating Tiers Tier 1 (Core) instruction present at all three levelsPurpose of Tier 2 is to improve success in Tier 1Purpose of Tier 3 is to improve success in Tier 2Is there a single “intervention” plan made up of different Tier services?
34 Application Issues: Challenges - Intervention Support Intervention plans should be developed based on student need and skills of staffAll intervention plans should have intervention supportPrincipals should ensure that intervention plans have intervention supportTeachers should not be expected to implement plans for which there is no support
35 Need for Systems Change PS/RtI is not another project or programPS/RtI represents a new way of thinking about how we educate all studentsPS/RtI represents a New Way of WorkImplementation of a PS/RtI model requires major systemic change
37 Stages of Implementing Problem-Solving/RtI ConsensusBelief is sharedVision is agreed uponImplementation requirements understoodInfrastructure DevelopmentRegulationsTraining/Technical AssistanceModel (e.g., Standard Protocol)Tier I and II intervention systemsE.g., K-3 Academic Support PlanData ManagementTechnology supportDecision-making criteria establishedImplementation
38 The Process of Systems Change Until, and unless, Consensus (understanding the need and trusting in the support) is reached no support will exist to establish the Infrastructure. Until, and unless, the Infrastructure is in place Implementation will not take place.A fatal error is to attempt Implementation without Consensus and InfrastructureLeadership must come both from all levels
39 What changes need to occur? BeliefsKnowledgeSkills
40 BeliefsMaking the shift to a new paradigm, like PS/RtI, does not simply involve accepting a new set of skills. It also involves giving up certain beliefs in favor of others.PS/RtI requires systemic change in the way we educate all studentsKen Howell
41 BeliefsStudent performance is influenced most by the quality of the interventions we deliver and how well we deliver them- not preconceived notions about child characteristicsDecisions are best made with dataOur expectations for student performance should be dependent on a student’s response to intervention, not on the basis of a “score” that “predicts” what they are “capable” of doing.
42 Beliefs Every student is everybody’s responsibility PSM/RtI is a General Education Initiative-Not Special EducationImproving the effectiveness of core instruction is basic to this processNO Child Left Behind Really Means “NO”Assessment (data) should both inform and evaluate the impact of instructionPolicies must be consistent with beliefsBeliefs must be supported by researchFocus on alterable variables
43 Knowledge The Problem-Solving method The relationship between RtI and the Problem-Solving methodEmpirically validated instructional practices in the general education classroom at Tiers 1, 2, & 3Importance and methods of assessing instructional qualityAdapted from Response to Intervention, NASDSE, 2006
44 Knowledge (cont’d)Determining appropriate interventions based upon student dataDifference between the intensity of a problem and the severityThe role of progress monitoringState and Federal Statutes & RegulationsCritical factors in systems changeSmall Group Planning and Problem-Solving Techniques
45 Response to Intervention Final ThoughtsProblem Solving &Response to Intervention