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1 A collaborative project between the Florida Department of Education and the University of South Florida

2 Outcomes of State Efforts Introductory RtI TAP disseminated on March 3, 2006; can be accessed at: Collaboration and Emphasis on General Education Involvement/Leadership Problem-Solving/RtI Florida Project is accessible at: PS/RtI – Teaching Learning Connection (TLC): academic focus Positive Behavior Support: behavior focus State-wide PS/RtI Implementation Plan Relevant Rule Revisions: E/BD, Proposed Administrative, Draft SLD, Draft LI 2

3 PS/RtI Integrates Efforts PS / RtI Florida Department of Education

4 State-Level Collaborators Bureau of School Improvement, FLDOE Just Read, Florida!, FLDOE Florida Center for Reading Research, FSU LD Research Project, FSU PS/RtI Pilot Project, USF RtI-TLC Project, UCF Positive Behavior Support Project, USF Student Support Services Project, USF FL Center for Research – STEM, FSU Office of Math and Science, FLDOE Bureau of Exceptional Student Education and Student Services, FLDOE Reading First Professional Development, RFPD Family Network on Disabilities of Florida, FND Florida Educators Association, FEA 4

5 What does the State Plan do? Provides an overview of Floridas perspective and approach to RtI. Connects and integrates terms and concepts with existing initiatives. Specifies foundational beliefs about how to create ideal conditions to promote student achievement. Calls for active engagement of parents. Discusses positive impact on school improvement, student achievement, and disproportionate representation of minority populations in special education programs. 5

6 What does the State Plan Do? Specifies State and District responsibilities in the scaling-up process. Outlines the state team infrastructure. Policy leadership team Implementation team Advisory group Reports current and future activities. Suggests flexible funding considerations. Applies to English language learners (ELL). Applies to Special Education eligibility. Contains links to resources and related efforts to assist the reader in next steps. 6

7 Tools to Support Efforts District/School Self-Assessment Tool Take a few minutes and complete the Self Assessment for your school Provide our baseline Provide input for our districts plan 7

8 What is RtI? RTI is the practice of (1) providing high quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and, (2) using level of performance and learning rate over time to (3) make important educational decisions to guide instruction. National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2005

9 Core Principles of RtI A process designed to maximize achievement for all students Frequent data collection on student performance Early identification of students at risk Early intervention (K-3) Multi-tiered model of service delivery Research-based, scientifically validated instruction/interventions Ongoing progress monitoring - interventions evaluated and modified Data-based decision making - all decisions made with data Focused on outcomes

10 Response to Intervention is Not: About the identification of LD An instructional program. It is a framework to make decisions about instructional needs based on student data A way to avoid special education placement A hoop to jump through to ensure Sp. Ed. placement Intended to promote or encourage placement for students Intended to focus only on students who are below expected levels of proficiency Possible to implement alone; it is a cooperative effort of teachers, administrators, and support staff

11 Whats it look like? What does it do? Characteristics of a Building with RtI a. Frequent data collection on students in critical areas b. Early identification of students at risk c. Early intervention (kindergarten) d. Interventions evaluated and modified (if necessary) frequently e. Tiered levels of service delivery f. All decisions made with or verified by data Outcomes of RtI a. Improved rate of academic and behavior performance b. Significantly reduced disproportionality c. Reductions in special education referrals and placements

12 Big Ideas

13 What We Used to Think What We Now Know Thorough understanding of the intrapersonal (within person) causes of educational disabilities is the most critical factor in determining appropriate treatment. Persons within disability categories have similar educational needs that are different in educationally important ways from persons in other disability categories. Matching treatments to underlying characteristics will result in maximally effective interventions. Auditory Learners Auditory Reading Methods Visual Learners Visual Reading Methods Kinesthetic Learners Kinesthetic Reading Methods Aptitude by Treatment interactions (ATIs) have not been proven. Educational needs vary widely within and across disability categories Educational disability results from the complex interaction between curriculum, instruction, the environment, and learner characteristics. Ideas

14 Traditional vs. Response to Intervention Intervention InterventionConsider ESE Traditional- Intervention Intervention Response to Intervention- Intervention Consider ESE If necessary Regular Education Monitor Progress Monitor Progress 14

15 Teacher Recognizes Problem Eligibility Determination Intervention Brainstorming Psychoeducational Evaluation Conducted Intervention Brainstorming Referral for Psychoeducational Evaluation Teacher/ School Level Screening Recognizes Problem Eligibility Determination Data Analyzed To Determine Systemic v. Individual Student Problem Informed Intervention Monitoring of Response to Intervention Revision Monitoring of Response to Intervention Disability Characteristics Determined Assessment How we got here… Discovery of Student Need 15

16 A Shift in Thinking The central question is not: What about the students is causing the performance discrepancy? but What about the interaction of the curriculum, instruction, learners and learning environment should be altered so that the students will learn? This shift alters everything else Ken Howell

17 We Need A New Logic Begin with the idea that the purpose of the system is student achievement Acknowledge that student needs exist on a continuum rather than in typological groupings Organize resources to make educational resources available in direct proportion to student need David Tilly 2004

18 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems Tier III: Intensive Interventions ( Few Students) Students who need Individual Intervention Tier II: Strategic Interventions (Some Students) Students who need more support in addition to the core curriculum Tier II: Targeted Group Interventions (Some Students) Students who need more support in addition to school-wide positive behavior program Tier I: Core Curriculum All students Tier I: Universal Interventions All students; all settings Three Tiered Model of School Supports: Example of an Infrastructure Resource Inventory Tier III: Comprehensive and Intensive Interventions ( Few Students) Students who need Individualized Interventions 18

19 Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Tier 3: Comprehensive and Intensive Interventions Individual Students or Small Group (2-3) Reading: Scholastic Program, Reading,Mastery, ALL, Soar to Success, Leap Track, Fundations 1-5% Tier 3: Intensive Interventions Individual Counseling FBA/BIP Teach, Reinforce, and Prevent (TRP) Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Tier 2: Strategic Interventions Students not responding to core curriculum Reading: Soar to Success, Leap Frog, CRISS strategies, CCC Lab Math: Extended Day Writing: Small Group, CRISS strategies, and Just Write Narrative by K. Robinson 5-10% Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Small Group Counseling Parent Training (Behavior & Academic) Bullying Prevention Program FBA/BIP Classroom Management Techniques, Professional Development Small Group Parent Training,Data Tier 1: Core Curriculum All students Reading: Houghton Mifflin Math: Harcourt Writing: Six Traits Of Writing Learning Focus Strategies 80-90% Tier 1: Universal Interventions All settings, all students Committee, Preventive, proactive strategies School Wide Rules/ Expectations Positive Reinforcement System (Tickets & 200 Club) School Wide Consequence System School Wide Social Skills Program, Data (Discipline, Surveys, etc.) Professional Development (behavior) Classroom Management Techniques,Parent Training Three Tiered Model of School Supports: Example of an Infrastructure Resource Inventory Students

20 Tiers of Service Delivery 1. Problem Identification- Whats the problem? 2. Problem Analysis- Why is it occurring? 3. Intervention Design/Implementation- What are we going to do about it? 4. Response to Intervention- Is it working? Tier I Tier II Tier III 20

21 Problem Solving A systematic and structured process that uses the skills of professionals from different disciplines to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention plans that result in the significant improvement (closing the gap) of student performance

22 Implications for Activities at Various Tiers More Less Measurement Frequency Measurement Precision Depth of Problem Analysis Instructional Time Measurement Focus Applicable evidence- based interventions Group Size 22

23 Step 1 – Problem Identification: What is the problem? To identify a problem, you need to start with three pieces of data Expected level of performance Student level of performance Peer level of performance

24 Problem ID Expectation % compliance weeks Student Peers 24

25 Step 2 - Problem Analysis: Why is it occurring? The development of hypotheses about probable causes for the identified problem Assessment data are collected to validate hypotheses

26 Problem Analysis The problem is occurring because ________________. If ____________ would occur, the problem would be reduced.

27 RIOT by ICEL DOMAINS R Review I Interview O Observe T Test I Instruction C Curriculum E Environment L Learner Step 2 - Problem Analysis: Why is it occurring?

28 Effective teaching strategies consider both what to teach and how to teach it. Making good decisions will increase student progress. It is critical that the instruction be matched to the problem. Howell & Nolet, 2000 Step 3 – Intervention Design: What are we going to do about it?

29 Match intervention type and intensity to student(s), setting, problem Interventions must focus on teaching desired behavior Select evidence-based interventions that match context of school/classroom culture Provide support for implementation Coaching Evaluation of implementation integrity Step 3 – Intervention Design: What are we going to do about it?

30 Goal Classroom Intervention I Making instructional / intervention decisions based on review and analysis of student data Progress monitoring always includes graphing Classroom Intervention 2 Step 4 – Progress Monitoring: Is it working? 30

31 Performance Time Response to Intervention Expected Rate Observed Rate Positive Questionable Poor Goal Classroom Intervention

32 Application Issues: Challenges - Data Collection What is collected and who collects it? How frequently is it collected? Organization Disaggregated by grade, gender, race, language, SES? Designed to answer specific questions (Tier 1/2 effectiveness?

33 Application Issues: Challenges - Integrating Tiers Tier 1 (Core) instruction present at all three levels Purpose of Tier 2 is to improve success in Tier 1 Purpose of Tier 3 is to improve success in Tier 2 Is there a single intervention plan made up of different Tier services?

34 Application Issues: Challenges - Intervention Support Intervention plans should be developed based on student need and skills of staff All intervention plans should have intervention support Principals should ensure that intervention plans have intervention support Teachers should not be expected to implement plans for which there is no support

35 Need for Systems Change PS/RtI is not another project or program PS/RtI represents a new way of thinking about how we educate all students PS/RtI represents a New Way of Work Implementation of a PS/RtI model requires major systemic change

36 Change Model Consensus Infrastructure Implementation

37 Stages of Implementing Problem-Solving/RtI Consensus Belief is shared Vision is agreed upon Implementation requirements understood Infrastructure Development Regulations Training/Technical Assistance Model (e.g., Standard Protocol) Tier I and II intervention systems E.g., K-3 Academic Support Plan Data Management Technology support Decision-making criteria established Implementation

38 The Process of Systems Change Until, and unless, Consensus (understanding the need and trusting in the support) is reached no support will exist to establish the Infrastructure. Until, and unless, the Infrastructure is in place Implementation will not take place. A fatal error is to attempt Implementation without Consensus and Infrastructure Leadership must come both from all levels

39 What changes need to occur? Beliefs Knowledge Skills

40 Beliefs Making the shift to a new paradigm, like PS/RtI, does not simply involve accepting a new set of skills. It also involves giving up certain beliefs in favor of others. PS/RtI requires systemic change in the way we educate all students Ken Howell

41 Student performance is influenced most by the quality of the interventions we deliver and how well we deliver them- not preconceived notions about child characteristics Decisions are best made with data Our expectations for student performance should be dependent on a students response to intervention, not on the basis of a score that predicts what they are capable of doing. Beliefs

42 Every student is everybodys responsibility PSM/RtI is a General Education Initiative-Not Special Education Improving the effectiveness of core instruction is basic to this process NO Child Left Behind Really Means NO Assessment (data) should both inform and evaluate the impact of instruction Policies must be consistent with beliefs Beliefs must be supported by research Focus on alterable variables

43 The Problem-Solving method The relationship between RtI and the Problem-Solving method Empirically validated instructional practices in the general education classroom at Tiers 1, 2, & 3 Importance and methods of assessing instructional quality Knowledge Adapted from Response to Intervention, NASDSE, 2006

44 Knowledge (contd) Determining appropriate interventions based upon student data Difference between the intensity of a problem and the severity The role of progress monitoring State and Federal Statutes & Regulations Critical factors in systems change Small Group Planning and Problem-Solving Techniques

45 Final Thoughts Problem Solving & Response to Intervention

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