Presentation on theme: "The Chemistry of Life Organic Compounds. 2–3Carbon Compounds A.The Chemistry of Carbon B.Macromolecules C.Carbohydrates D.Lipids E.Nucleic Acids F.Proteins."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions What makes a compound Organic? Why is carbon able to make large compound from relatively few elements? What are the four classes of Organic compounds? What are carbohydrates, and how can you identify them, why are they important to living things? Examples of Proteins include…., what makes up a protein, chemically how are they different from carbohydrates? What are lipids, how can you identify a lipid from other organic compounds, why are they important to living things? What are two examples of nucleic acids, why are they important to living things? What are enzymes made up of typically, what is their purpose in living organisms, what factors influence how they work?
Chemistry of Carbon ORGANIC COMPOUNDS contain CARBON ATOMS Carbon can combine with itself and typically the atoms H, O, and N. Carbon allows for chemical and structural variety because it has four valence electrons (available bonding positions) 6 C Carbon 12.011 e e e e e e C
Methane Acetylene ButadieneBenzene Isooctane Section 2-3 Figure 2-11 Carbon Compounds Carbon also covalently bonds to other carbon atoms to form chains, branched chains, and rings (see figure 3-2) Most organic molecules are represented by Structural Formulas: CH 4 C 2 H 2 C 4 H 6 C 6 H 6 C 8 H 18 Carbon can Share Two or even Three Pair of Electrons with another Atom (Figure 3-2) A. SINGLE BOND - A bond formed when two atoms share ONE pair of electrons. B. DOUBLE BOND - Atoms share TWO pairs of electrons. C. TRIPLE BOND - Atoms Sharing THREE pairs of elements.
Large Carbon Molecules Carbon Compounds are often made from combining smaller molecules Small single molecules are called Monomers (MONO=1) When two or more Monomers are combined complex molecules known as Polymers can be made Large Polymers are called Macromolecules http://www.hippocampus.org/course_locator?course=AP Biology I&lesson=6&topic=1&width=600&height=454&topicTitle=Macromolecules%3A%20 Overview&skinPath=http://www.hippocampus.org/hippocampus.skins/default
Macromolecules Monomers can link to other monomers to form polymers through a Chemical Reactions called Polymerization Polymerization joins small molecules (monomers) together by removing H+ and OH- to form water molecule This is known as a Condensation (Dehydration) Reaction
Breaking Down Polymers The addition of WATER and ENZYMES to some polymers can break the bonds that hold them together Macromolecules can be broken down by a process known as Hydrolysis –the reverse of Condensation/dehydration
Four main classes of Organic Compounds are essential to the life processes of All Living Things: : 1. Carbohydrates (Sugars and Starches) 2. Lipids (fats) 3. Proteins Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) These Compound are built from Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, atoms. These atoms occur in different Ratios in each class of Compound.
Carbon Compounds include that consist of which contain that consist of which contain Section 2-3 Concept Map CarbohydratesLipids ProteinsNucleic acids Sugars and starches Fats and oils Amino AcidsNucleotides Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, Carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen, Phosphorous
CARBOHYDRATES The cells of the human body obtain most of their ENERGY from CARBOHYDRATES. CARBOHYDRATES ARE COMPOUNDS MADE OF CARBON, HYDROGEN, AND OXYGEN In a ratio of ONE CARBON, to TWO HYDROGENS, to ONE OXYGEN atom. Ratio=C 1 H 2 O 1 Examples: C 6 H 12 O 6 Examples of Carbohydrates: Sugars, and Starches are Carbohydrates. Complex Carbohydrates are Polymers of simple carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates are often used for strength and rigidity in plant and animals Examples of Complex Carbohydrates: Chitin and Cellulose Go to program 2
Carbohydrates Classification Monosaccharides Polysaccharide SINGLE SUGARS (Simple Sugar) SUCH AS GLUCOSE, GALACTOSE, A SUGAR FOUND IN MILK, AND FRUCTOSE, A SUGAR FOUND IN FRUITS. (C6 H12 O6). CARBOHYDRATE MADE OF LONG CHAINS OF SUGARS ("Many Sugars", Three or More Monosaccharides). The prefix POLY means "Many". Starches, such as those in BREAD, PASTA, AND POTATOES There are THREE TYPES of carbohydrates, based on complexity Disaccharides- Monosaccharide + Monosaccharide
Starch Glucose Section 2-3 Figure 2-13 Starch-a Polysaccharide SUGAR Examples; Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen consist of hundreds of Glucose Molecules strung together in a highly branched chain.
PROTEINS Proteins are Organic Compounds composed of C,H,O,N PROTEINS ARE THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR THE BODY PARTS SUCH AS MUSCLES, SKIN, HAIR, TEETH, NAILS, AND BLOOD. They help with immunity, and are the components of antibodies, hormones and pigments Our cells need proteins to make other proteins, such as Enzymes. Proteins are polymers made up of smaller units called AMINO ACIDS. (The Monomer Building Blocks of Protein). Our bodies contain thousands of different proteins. All these proteins are made from about 20 Different Amino Acids. Amino Acids Differ ONLY in the type of R Group they Carry. The difference among the Amino Acid R Groups gives different Proteins Very Different Shapes Go to program 4
General structure AlanineSerine Section 2-3 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids Amino group Carboxyl group Two Amino Acids form a Covalent Bond, called a PEPTIDE BOND during a Condensation Reaction Two Amino Acids we call a DIPEPTIDE What do you think we call three or more joined together?
Amino acids Section 2-3 Figure 2-17 A Protein Several Amino Acids can bond to each other forming a long chain called a POLYPEPTIDE. Proteins are compose of one or more polypeptides. Some proteins are very large molecules, containing hundreds of Amino Acids.
Proteins as Enzymes Proteins are enzyme catalysts Catalysts speed up chemical reactions and aide in the breaking down of large polymers and macromolecules by lowering activation energy needed for reactions to occur. Chemical reactions release or absorb energy when bonds between atoms are broken
Energy-Absorbing Reaction Energy-Releasing Reaction Products Activation energy Activation energy Reactants Section 2-4 Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions The reaction speed and activity of enzymes is influenced by three things: PH, TEMPERATURE, AND CONCENTRATION OF ENZYMES.
LIPIDS Lipids are Large, Nonpolar Organic Molecules that DO NOT Dissolve in Water (hydrophobic). They have Large Numbers of Carbon to Hydrogen Bonds, which store More Energy than Carbon to Oxygen Bonds. Lipid molecules have a HIGHER Ratio of Carbon and Hydrogen Atoms Three common categories of lipids: Fats, Oils, and Waxes Go to program 3
FATTY ACIDS FATTY ACIDS are Unbalanced Carbon Chains that make up most Lipids. Fats with DOUBLE bonds are called UNSATURATED FAT and are LIQUIDS at room temperature. Referred to as OILS SATURATED FATS have no double bonds so they have the maximum # of HYDROGENS ATOMS Saturated fats are SOLID at room temperature. Tri- glyceride Fatty acid
Phospholipid Phospholipids are a kind of Lipid that consists of TWO FATTY ACIDS (TAILS), and PHOSPHATE GROUP (HEADS). The “heads” are Polar and are ‘hydrophilic” The “tails” are Non polar and are “hydrophobic” Phospholipids are the primary structure that make up our cell membranes (phospholipid bilayer) Phospholipids will orient themselves in water into a bilayer with the tails facing inward and the heads facing outward
Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids are very Large and Complex Organic Molecules that STORE Important Information in the Cell. Nucleic acids are made up of C,H,O, N, P Examples of nucleic acids include: –DNA (contains information for cell activities) –RNA (stores and transfers information for making proteins) Both DNA and RNA are Polymers, composed of thousands of linked Monomers called NUCLEOTIDES.
DNA AND RNA Each NUCLEOTIDE is made of : A PHOSPHATE GROUP, A FIVE- CARBON SUGAR, AND A RING SHAPED NITROGEN BASE (Genetic or Heredity Information) is stored in four types of nitrogen bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine