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A Framework for Understanding Poverty-An Overview By Ruby K. Payne, Ph

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1 A Framework for Understanding Poverty-An Overview By Ruby K. Payne, Ph
A Framework for Understanding Poverty-An Overview By Ruby K. Payne, Ph.D. A Model to address the Achievement Gap by dealing with issues related to poverty/not racial or cultural diversity 3/15/06

2 Understanding the Model’s Application to Closing the Achievement Gap
A Framework for Understanding Poverty Professional Development Agenda 3/15/06 Understanding the Model’s Application to Closing the Achievement Gap Understanding the Key Points Discussing school’s ability to provide resources Identifying the components of the framework and strategies for ensuring success

3 Closing the Gap Goals To ensure that ALL children are able to achieve the standards as set forth by the State of Florida (Rigor) To ensure that our data shows no gaps in learning between socioeconomic groups or races To ensure that all children move to the next level ready to learn and graduate ready to live well

4 How Can Ruby Payne’s Model Assist?
Bill Daggett suggests that: Rigor + Relevance + Relationships= Higher Achievement Ruby Payne suggests that: And….that educators can better ensure all students achieve at high levels by applying her framework.

5 Ruby’s Key Points Poverty is relative.
Poverty occurs in all races/all countries. Economic class is a continuous line/not a clear-cut distinction. Generation & situational poverty are different. This work is based on patterns; all patterns have exceptions. Individuals bring with them hidden rules of their class. Schools operate from the middle-class norms and values.

6 Examples of Rules: Poverty Middle Class Wealth Possessions People
Things One of a kind objects or pedigrees Money Use or spend Manage Invest View of the World Local National International

7 Key Points (continued):
We must understand the hidden rules but teach students the rules that will make them successful. We must teach them that there are two sets of rules. We cannot excuse or scold students for NOT KNOWING; we must teach them and provide support, insistence, and expectations. To move from poverty to middle class or middle class to wealth, an individual must give up relationships for achievement (at least for some period of time).

8 Key Points: Two things which help one move out of poverty are: education & relationships Four reasons one leaves poverty are: too painful to stay; vision or goal; key relationships; special talent/skill

9 Some Facts about Poverty
Poor children are more likely than non-poor children to: be in single-parent families be victims of child abuse/neglect have parents with low educational attainment

10 Some Facts about Poverty continued:
Poor children are more likely than non-poor children to: - suffer developmental delays and damage - drop out of high school - give birth during the teen years - score poorly on standardized tests

11 they are present in every one of our schools!
We must, then, attend to the needs of children living in poverty, and…………… they are present in every one of our schools!

12 Poverty and Resources Poverty is the extent to which an individual does without resources. The ability to leave poverty depends on many resources-not just financial.

13 What are the Necessary Resources?
Financial Emotional Mental Spiritual Physical Support Systems Relationships/Role Models Knowledge of Hidden Rules

14 Which of these resources can a school impact/provide?
Talk at your table and be prepared to report to the group.

15 Why is the idea of resources important?
To dispense advice or seek solutions to situations, we must know what resources are available (not only from a middle class point of view) By understanding resources, we can influence non-financial resources (for example: being a role model)

16 Language, Story Structure, Cognition (Remember Rita!)
Registers: frozen, formal, consultative, casual, intimate In poverty, majority of students have no access to formal register at home. Thus, cannot use formal register. How Does This Impact Learning/Overall Success in School/in Life?

17 Registers of Language: Discourse Patterns (Organizational Pattern of Information)
Primary discourse: language 1st acquired (casual-around the issue) Secondary discourse: language of larger society (formal-to the point) Discourse is how one thinks Do better in school if instruction is provided through primary, BUT: Students living in poverty must be taught to think in secondary discourse-direct instruction/relationships

18 Story Structure Formal-Starts at the beginning and goes to the end in an accepted narrative pattern. The plot is the most important part. Casual-Begins with the end or the part that is most emotional with a focus on characters. Which structure contributes to effective learning? How can schools address this area?

19 Addressing Language Issues
Permit students to write in casual & translate to formal Require students to speak in formal when they are facing discipline Use graphic organizers to show patterns Tell stories both ways and compare/contrast Use stories across the content Teach formal register, discourse patterns, & story structure directly Relate need to learn to success in work.

20 Hidden Rules Take the quiz while discussing it at your table.
Discuss the hidden rules as identified by the chart. How do these manifest themselves in schools? Be prepared to share.

21 Hidden Rules/Mental Models
The assumption is that everyone knows what you know. We see the world and react to situations through our own mental models but we really do not realize this fact. Hidden rules govern how we assess another individual and his/her capabilities.

22 Why do schools need to understand the concept of hidden rules?
To ensure that expectations do not differ from student to student To teach students the hidden rules of middle class to mastery To be able to work within a family’s rules when exploring solutions to problems/not imposing MC rules To lessen frustration levels

23 Characteristics of Generational Poverty
Generational vs. Situational/Middle Class: (background noise; personality; entertainment; relationships; matriarchal; oral language; survival; lover/fighter role; rescuer/martyr role; non-verbal/ kinesthetic; owning people; negative orientation; discipline; belief in fate; polarized thinking; mating dance; time; sense of humor; lack of order; lives in the moment; different family patterns) How does this impact the school environment and learning?

24 What does this mean for schools?
Education is the key to getting out: goal or vision; painful situation; mentor; talent or skill: relationships Rarely related to lack of intelligence or ability: rigor Stay because don’t know choice exists; have nobody to teach rules or help with resources: schools virtually only place to provide help

25 Role Models/Emotional Resources
System: group in which individuals have rules, roles, and relationships Dysfunctional: extent to which an individual cannot get needs met within the system To move from poverty, one must move from the “system” & give up relationships/need emotional resources

26 Developing Emotional Resources
Provide support systems Use appropriate discipline strategies Establish long-term relationships Teach hidden rules ID options Increase achievement level through good instruction Teach goal setting

27 Discipline: about penance and forgiveness/not change
Policy should provide structure (clear expectations/consequences) and teach about choices/and should be for the purpose of promoting good behavior. Interventions should be based on understanding of poverty and should teach. Teach students to use the language of negotiation/use of adult voice. Explain the possible need for 2 sets of behaviors.

28 Instruction and Improving Achievement
Low achievement is closely correlated with lack of resources, and numerous studies have documented the correlation between low SES and low achievement. Focus on research on learning (what does on inside the head) and not teaching (occurs outside the head) to change this fact.

29 Learning Structures

30 Cognitive Strategies Fundamental ways of processing information
Infrastructures of the mind Work by R. Feuerstein Must directly teach ability to plan and systematically go through data Must use mediation to ensure effective learning occurs Not just “don’t cross street, or you could get hit by a car,” but…….. Also the teaching of a strategy: If you must go, look both ways twice.

31 Three Stages in the Learning Process for Teaching Cognitive Strategies
Input like using planning behaviors Elaboration like defining a problem Output like using precise language Regardless of the content, students are taught the strategies and then are required to use. PK, Reading Programs, CSR, Prevention/Support Programs, Parent Training

32 Strategies Teach effective eye movements Use graphic organizers
Teach systematic approaches to the data/text (highlighting) Establish goal setting/self-talk Teach conceptual frameworks Use kinesthetic approach Use rubrics

33 Strategies Teach structure of language Teach to make questions
Teach mental models Make learning/not teaching the focus Teach teachers to diagnose and then design Teach to the process/not just content

34 Creating Relationships
Key to achievement: creating relationships with students Relationships are most significant motivator Resilient kids are the result of caring adults. Use Covey’s emotional bank account model Create a caring school, promote achievement, be role models, insist upon successful behaviors

35 “No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship.”
-Dr. James Comer

36 Why A Focus on this Framework?
As Covey tells us, “Seek first to understand.” We need to understand the motivation and perspectives of our children who come from poverty if we are to successfully teach them.

37 Where to Go from Here? Faculty Overview Faculty Study Groups
Designing Your School’s Changes Making a Difference for Those We Serve Who Are Living in Poverty

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