Why all of the Cs?? The element carbon is found in all living things.
organic chemistry 166 The branch of Chemistry devoted to the study of organic compounds, those containing carbon! Almost all life is made out of the element Carbon!!
Crash course carbon video W_JY4&desktop_uri=%2Fwatch%3Fv%3 DQnQe0xW_JY4&nomobile=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QnQe0x W_JY4&desktop_uri=%2Fwatch%3Fv%3 DQnQe0xW_JY4&nomobile=1
Why carbon? Because of its electron structure! Draw the electron configuration for carbon.
Where can this atom form bonds? Energy level
All four sides are available to form strong covalent bonds!!! Carbon can form straight chains or branched chains or rings. C C O C C C C CCCCC C C C C This make an unlimited number of possibilities for carbon structures.
MACROMOLECULES 167 Large molecules formed by joining smaller organic molecules together. Contain thousands of carbons bonded with other elements..
polymers, 167 POLYMER: a large molecule formed by many smaller ones bonded together, another name for macromolecule. Repeating units of nearly identical compounds called monomers.
ISOMERS COMPOUNDS THAT HAVE THE SAME CHEMICAL FORMULA BUT DIFFERENT STRUCTURES.
A. Glucose, a six-membered ring monosaccharide. B. Fructose, a five-membered ring monosaccharide. C. Sucrose, a disaccharide containing glucose and fructose. D. Molecular representation of starch illustrating the alpha- glycosidic linkages joining monosaccharides to form the polysaccharide structure.
Monomer Single units of small molecules. Bond together to form POLYMERS HYDROLYSIS: ADDITION OF A WATER MOLECULE TO BREAK A BOND Dehydration synthesis: removal of a water molecule to bond together two units.
CARBOHYDRATES 168 An organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. General formula CH 2 O Types: MONOSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES
CARBOHYDRATES The main function is to release and store energy for the cell.
monosaccharide Glucose and fructose are examples
disaccharides Sucrose = glucose and fructose bonded together
Lactose and maltose are also disaccharides
POLYSACCHARIDES MANY MONOSACCHARIDES BONDED TOGETHER IN A POLYMER. STARCH AND GLYCOGEN ARE EXAMPLES.
STARCH Starches are many monosaccharides linked together in a single chain. These are called Polysaccharides. Plants use this for energy storage e.g. Potatoes Two types –Amylose - Long strait unbranched chains –Pectins - many linked short Amylose chains
GYLCOGEN ANIMALS STORE FOOD ENERGY IN THIS FORM. Glycogen is a moderately branched polysaccharide Animals use this for energy storage.
CELLULOSE Found in the cell walls of plants
Organic: contains Carbon How many valence electrons does Carbon have? What kind of bond?
Cells use Carbohydrates to store Energy and provide structural support. Quick energy!!! Fruits, veggies, and C:H:O - - 1:2:1 (CH 2 0) n grains Similar components…different structural formulas
LIPIDS/FATS 169 Lipids are macromolecules made of mostly Carbon and Hydrogen including fats, waxes & oils Primary function is energy storage. –Energy is stored in C-H bonds. –More efficient in storing energy
–Lipids are made of 2 parts Glycerol - an alcohol - Serves as backbone of the molecule 3 Fatty acids - Long hydrocarbon chains
Saturated fats have long chains with no double-bonds Unsaturated fats have double bonds Polyunsaturated fats have many double bonds Each time a double bond is encountered, the molecule "Bends" slightly, resulting in a lower density of the lipid. This makes the molecule more likely to remain liquid at room or body temperatures.
4 Major types of biologically important Lipids Phospholipids - Important for membrane structure Steroids - e.g.. Cholesterol & testosterone. Provide membrane support / serve as hormones Terpenes - serve as important components of pigments Prostaglandins - appear to act like localized hormones to induce cellular/tissue responses.
Lipids store energy and are a component of the cell membrane C H O – no set ratio Found in meat, nuts, butter nonpolar Store more Energy than carbs
Other Lipids Cholesterol is a steroid found in the cell membrane of animal cells Pigments – light absorbing compounds
Structure of Fats Glycerol backbone 3 fatty acid chains
Saturated Fats Contain the maximum # of C- H bonds Solid or almost solid at room temperature Unhealthy fats! Mostly animal fats
Unsaturated Fats C=C, fewer C-H Bonds Usually liquid at room temperature More healthy fats Mostly plant oils
PROTEINS, 170 Made up of amino acids! LARGE POLYMER MADE UP OF CARBON, HYDROGEN,OXYGEN, NITROGEN AND SOMETIMES SULFUR.
AMINO ACIDS 170 BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF PROTEINS
Amino acid structures
SOME COMMON A.A.S Nonpolar Glycine Alanine Valine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine Phenylalanine Tryptophan Proline
PRIMARY 1ST Primary Structure of a protein is its sequence of amino acids
SECONDARY 2ND The Sequence (primary structure) causes parts of a protein molecule to fold into sheets or bend into helix shapes - this is a proteins Seconda ry Structure.
TERTIARY 3RD The protein then can compact and twist on itself to form a mass called its Tertiary Structure
QUATERNARY 4TH Several Proteins then can combine and form a proteins Quaternary Structure
DENATURE BREAKS THE PEPTIDE BONDS OF THE PROTEIN AND MAKES THE STRUCTURE COME APART.
Types of Proteins –Collagen: most abundant--Skin, ligaments, tendons, bones –Enzyme: catalyst (increase the rate of chemical reactions) –Antibiodies: defend against infection –Hemoglobin: carries oxygen in blood
Nucleic acids, 171 Complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information. DNA and RNA are examples of nucleic acids.
Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids
DNA a double helix
RNA single strands Messenger, ribosomal and transfer are all types of RNA
t RNA and mRNA during protein synthesis
ATP is an energy storage molecule necessary for cell processes. NOT a nucleic acid Energy currency for cell Adenosine triphosphate –Single nucleotide with 2 extra phosphate groups
Carbohydrates Monosaccharides are single sugars that react with a mixture called Benedict's reagent or Benedict's solution. The reaction changes the color of the reagent to green, red or orange depending oh how much sugar is present. Benedict's reagent can be used to test for the presence of many of the simple sugars. Complete the experiment that follows with Benedict's reagent.
Results after five minutes of heating Benedict's solution and glucose.
Below are the results of two tubes heated with Benedict's reagent. Which one is positive for simple sugars and which is negative?
Add 2 milliliters of iodine to 2 milliliters of water.
add 2 milliliters of iodine to a starch solution.
Which of the tubes to the right is a positive test for starch and which is a negative?
Proteins Proteins react with biuret reagent. The reaction turns the color of biuret from a light blue to violet. Complete the experiment that follows with biuret reagent.
Below are two tubes with biuret reagent. Which one is positive for protein and which is negative?
Sudan IV is a dye that will dissolve in fats. It will not dissolve in carbohydrates or proteins. Sudan IV will change the color of a fat to red.
Add 2 milliliters of Sudan IV to oil.
Record the color of the solution in the test tube
Data chart for other foods
SC.912.P.8.12 Describe the properties of the carbon atom that make the diversity of carbon compounds possible. 1. How many electrons does Carbon have in the valence shell___4____ Draw a carbon atoms valence electrons 2. How many covalent bonds does this allow it to form? ___4____ 3. Are the bonds close to the nucleus or far from it? ____close___ 4. Does this make them stronger or weaker than ones that are further from the nucleus? __stronger____
SC. 912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structure and primary function of the four major classes of biological macromolecules. What are organic compounds? Those that contain carbon___ List the 4 major types of organic molecules and a brief description of each. 1. Carbohydrates: CH 2 O energy, Mono, di, Poly 2. Lipids: C and H no ratio, long term storage of energy, membranes 3. Proteins: made of amino acids, enzymes, structures, longer energy storage than carbs 4. Nucleic Acids: Sugar Phosphate and nitrogen base, DNA and RNA genetic information
5. Amino acids in a chain can interact to form sheets or coil into more complex shapes. Why is the shape of a complex protein important? It may be an enzyme and have an active site or be a structure In an organism. 6. What property of lipids makes them the perfect component of the cell membrane? Hydrophobic/ nonpolar water barrier. 7. What are the basic building blocks of proteins? Amino acids 8. Unlike carbohydrates and fats, proteins contain nitrogen. 9. These organic molecules act as enzymes or structural components like collagen that is found in skin, tendons and bones. proteins
10. Which type of organic molecule has primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures? Proteins 11. Where are phospholipids found? Cell membranes, 12. What is the function of nucleic acids? store and transmit genetic information 13. What are the three parts of a nucleotide? Sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base.
SC.912.L.18.2 Describe the important structural characteristics of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides and explain the functions of carbohydrates in living things. 1. As you move from mono to di to poly saccharides what happens to the amount of energy the molecule holds? It increases. So what happens to the function of these types of molecules? They become more long term storage or structural molecules rather than quick energy sources. 2. What is the structure of a fatty acid? Long hydrocarbon chains 3. What are some of the functions they perform? _long term energy storage, insulation
SC.912.L.18.4 Describe the structures of proteins and amino acids. Explain the functions of proteins in living organisms. Identify some reactions that amino acids undergo. Relate the structure and function of enzymes. 1. How does the shape of a protein play a role in the function it performs? The shape is important to the role as an enzyme and the ability to accept the substrate into the active site to lower the activation energy.