21. DefinitionTranspiration is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plants.Of all the water plant absorbs, over 95-99% is transpired to the air as water vapor.
34. From where water is transpired? Aerial parts of whole young plantLenticels (lenticular transpiration) 0.1%Cutin (cuticular transpiration) 3%~10% Stomatum (stomatal transpiration) ~ 90%
4What is this process called? Stomatal Transpiration What is most likely leaving through the stomata of the leaf picture here?Water (H2O)What is this process called?Stomatal Transpiration4
5Stomatal transpiration CuticlePrevents water lossMesophyllSite of photosynthesisStomataGuard cellsOpenings allow gases and water to move in and out of leafOpen and close the stomata
6Importance of transpiration Guard CellsWhat process involves using CO2 and H2O releasing O2 as a waste product?PhotosynthesisWhat is the plant using this process to make?Carbohydrates-glucoseIf the plant needs water for photosynthesis, why is water coming out of the stoma?Guard CellsWhat goes out?O2H2OCO2What goes in?Stoma ClosedStoma OpenStoma
7Function of StomataThese stomata (leaf openings) naturally allow water to evaporate out.Why would the plant close stomata with guard cells?Prevent excess water loss through transpiration. (conserve water)So what is the point of having stomata?Allows gas exchange for photosynthesisGuard CellsStoma OpenStoma ClosedGuard cells open by inflating with extra water. They do this by pumping K+ ions into the cell, which causes water to rush in via osmosis to diffuse the high ion concentration.7
8How do the guard cells react to the availability of water? Function of Guard CellsHow do the guard cells react to the availability of water?Dry – guard cells CLOSElots of H2O – guard cells OPEN8
9cells that open and close the stoma Guard cells:cells that open and close the stomaStomata: openings in leaf’s surface; when open:GAS EXCHANGE: Allows CO2 in & O2 out of leafTRANSPIRATION:Guard CellsStomata9
12Guard cell properties and their relationship with stomatal control Thickness of CW varies in the ventral and dorsal part of the guard cells.Contains chloroplast and can perform light reaction. (not dark reaction for the lack of key enzymes)Structurally isolated from epidermal cells for the lack of plasmodesmata (water and ions transmit only through cellular pathway, thus helps to build up water gradient)Little volume, little amount of water absorption or loss controls stomtal aperture.
14(1). LightStomata of most plant open in the day and close at night, while CAM plants are just the opposite.Stomata opening are sensitive to red light and blue light, and blue light is more effective, it stimulates opening by a blue-light receptor: zeaxanthin.
20Factors that influence transpiration Transpiration from the leaf depends on two major factors:Difference in water vapor gradientDiffusional resistance
21The driving force of transpiration is the “vapor pressure gradient The driving force of transpiration is the “vapor pressure gradient.” This is the difference in vapor pressure between the internal spaces in the leaf and the atmosphere around the leafDiffusional resistance comprises stomatal resistance and boundary layer resistance
22Transpiration rate=Driving force/resistance water vapor inside the leaf - water vapor of the air=stomatal resistance + boundary layer resistance
23Environmental factors that affect the rate of transpiration LightPlants transpire more rapidly in the light than in the dark. This is largely because light stimulates the opening of the stomata , Light also speeds up transpiration by warming the leaf .
242. TemperaturePlants transpire more rapidly at higher temperatures because water evaporates more rapidly as the temperature rises.3. Humidity When the surrounding air is dry, diffusion of water out of the leaf goes on more rapidly.
254. Wind When a breeze is present, the humid air is carried away and replaced by drier air. 5. Soil water A plant cannot continue to transpire rapidly if its water loss is not made up by replacement from the soil. When absorption of water by the roots fails to keep up with the rate of transpiration, loss of turgor occurs, and the stomata close. This immediately reduces the rate of transpiration. If the loss of turgor extends to the rest of the leaf and stem, the plant wilts.
26If you were an aquatic plant where would your stomata be? Fringed Water-lilyStomata are found only on the upper epidermis because the lower epidermis is submerged in water. If the stomata were to be on the underside, they wouldn't be able to perform their function (i.e to allow water to evaporate and thus contribute to transpiration).