Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilization: China 1000 B.C.E. to 500 C.E."— Presentation transcript:
1Classical Civilization: China 1000 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.
2Dynastic* Circles of Classical China Zhou – 1122 B.C.E. – 256 B.C.E.Period of Warring States 403 B.C.E. – 221 B.C.E.Qin – 221 B.C.E. – 207 B.C.E.Han – 206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.*A dynasty is a family of kings.Of all societies in the world today, China has maintained the clearest links to its classical past. Already in the period of classical Chinese history a pattern was set in motion that lasted until the early part of the 20th century. A family of kings called a dynasty would start its rule of China with great vigor, developing strong political institutions and encouraging an active economy. As a result, the dynasty grew weaker and tax revenues decliens while social division increased in the larger society. Internal rebellions and sometimes invasions from the outside hastened the dynasty’s decline. As the ruling dynasty declined, another dynasty emerged, usually from the family of a successful general, invader of peasant rebel, and the pattern would start anew. As a result many Chinese conceive of history in terms of cycles, in contrast to the Western tendency to think of steady progress from past to present.
3Zhou Dynasty 1029 B.C.E. to 258 B.C.E. China’s feudal period. Rulers gave large regional estates to family and supporters.Regional leaders provided central government with troops and tax revenues.Vulnerable system due to regional landowning aristocrats who built own power base.Even during its strong centuries, the Zhou did not establish powerful government, ruling instead through alliances with regional princes and noble families. The dynasty initially came into China from the north, displacing its predecessor, the Shang rulers. The alliance systems the Zhou used the basis for their rule were standard in agricultural kingdoms. Rulers lacked the means to control their territories directly and so gave large regional estates to members of their families and other supporters, hoping that their loyalties would remain intact. The supporters, in exchange for land, were supposed to provide the central government with troops and tax revenues. This was China’s feudal period, with rulers depending on a network of loyalties and obligations to and from their landlord vassals. Such a system was, of course, vulnerable to regional disloyalties, and the ultimate declines of the Zhou dynasty occurred when regional land-owning aristocrats solidified their own power based and disregarded the central government.
4Zhou Dynasty Political Developments Extended territory from the Huanghe to the Yangtze.China’s core or “Middle Kingdom”Rich agricultural lands merged wheat-growing north and rice-growing south.Encouraged population growth.Centralized rule became difficult.In spite of eventual demise of Zhou dynsaty, the Zhou contributed in several ways to the development of Chinese politics and culture in their early active centures. First, they extended the territory of China by taking over the Yngtze River valley. This stretch of territory from the Huanghe to Yangtze, became China’s core—often called the “middle Kingdom.” It provided rich agricultural lands plus the benefits of two different agricultures-wheat-growing in the north, rice growing in the south—a diversity that encouraged population growth. The territorial expansion obviously complicated the problems of central rule, for communication and transport from the capital to the outlying regions were difficult. This is why the Zhou relied so heavily on the loyalty of regional supporters.
5Zhou Dynasty Political and Cultural Developments Heightened focus on central government.Asserted Mandate of Heaven.Emperors considered Sons of Heaven.
6Zhou Dynasty Cultural Developments Banned human sacrifice.Standardized spoken language, ultimately called Mandarin Chinese, which prevailed over entire Middle Kingdom.Regional languages remained but educated officials relied on Mandarin form.As a result of the standardization of language of Mandarin Chinese, this group of people became the largest group speaking the same language in the world at this time. Regional dialects and language remained but educated officials began to rely on the single Mandarin form. Oral epics and stories in Chinese, many gradually recorded in written form, aided in the development of a common cultural currency.
7Religion and Culture under the Zhou. Maintained belief in gods but little focus on religion.Stressed harmonious earthly life that included rituals to unify society and prevent individual excess.Upper classes were trained in elaborate exercises and military skills such as archery.Veneration of ancestorsSpecial meals and introduction of chopsticks to encourage politeness at meals.The Chinese way of viewing the world, as the belief system developed during the classical period, was closely linked to a distinct political structure. Upepr class cultural values emphasized a good life on earth and the virtues of obedience to the state, more than speculations about God and the mysteries of heaven. At the same time, the Chinese tolerated and often combined various specific beliefs, so long as they did not contradict basic political loyalties.Rulers in the Zhou dynasty maintained beliefs in a god or gods, but little attention was given to the nature of a deity. Rather, Chinese leaders stressed the importance of a harmonious earthly life which would maintain proper balance between earth and heaven. Harmony included carefully constructed rituals to unify society and prvent individual excess. Among the upper classes, people were trained in elaborate exercises and military skills such as archery. Commonly, ceremonies venerating ancestors and even marking special meals were conducted. The use of chopsticks began at the end of the Zhou dynasty; it encouraged a code of politeness at meals. Soon after this, tea was introduced, although the most elaborate tea drinking rituals developed later on.
8The Fall of the Zhou Dynasty Regional rulers formed independent armies.Emperors were reduced to figureheads.From 402 to 201 B.C.E., the “Period of Warring States,” the Zhou dynasty disintegrated.Increasing cultural unit helps explain why, when the Zhou empire began to fail, scholars were able to use philosophical ideas to lessen the impact of growing political confusion. Indeed, the political crisis spurred efforts to define and articulate Chinese culture. During the late 6th and early 5th centuries B.C.E. the philosopher known in the west as Confucius wrote an elaborate statement on political ethics providing the core of China’s distinctive philosophical heritage. Other writers and religious leaders participated in this great period of cultural creativity which later re-emerged as a set of central beliefs throughout the Middle Kingdom.Cultural innovation did not, however, reverse the prolonged and painful Zhou downfall,
9Confucius (Kung the Philosopher) 551 to 478 B.C.E. Kong Fuzi ( B.C.E.) or “Master Philosopher Kong”Came from an aristocratic family in northern China.Served as an educator and political advisor.He attracted numerous disciples who aspired to political careers.Studied Book of Songs, Book of History and Book of Rites.King Fuzi means Kung the philosopher. Confucius devoted his life to teaching and traveled through many parts of China preaching his ideas of political virtue and good government. Confucius was not a religious leader; he believed in a divine order but refused to speculate about it.Chinese civilization was unusual, in the classical period and well beyond, in that its dominant values were secular rather than religious.
10Confucian Values Ren: attitude of kindness and a sense of humanity Li: sense of propriety ( in good taste with good manners); respectfulXiao: filial piety which means respect for family; in particular, children’s respect to parents and family elders.Junzi: Encouraged education to all talented and intelligent members of society.King Fuzi means Kung the philosopher. Confucius devoted his life to teaching and traveled through many parts of China preaching his ideas of political virtue and good government. Confucius was not a religious leader; he believed in a divine order but refused to speculate about it.Chinese civilization was unusual, in the classical period and well beyond, in that its dominant values were secular rather than religious.
11In the words of Confucius “When the ruler does right, all men will imitate his self control. What the ruler does, the people will follow.”“When the ruler excels as a father, a son, and a brother, then the people imitate him.”Confucianism was primarily a system of ethics—do unto others as your status and theirs dictate—and a plea for loyalty to the community. It confirmed the distaste that many educated Chiense had developed for religious mysteries, as well as their delight in learning and good manners. Confucian doctrine, carefully recorded in a book called the Analects, was revived under the Han emperors who saw the usefulness of Confucian emphasis on political virtue and social order. Confucian learning was also incorporated along with traditional literary works into the training of aspiring bureaucrats.
12Confucianism on Leadership Force alone cannot conquer unrest. Kindness toward the people and protection of their vital interests will.Rulers should be humble and sincere.Rulers should not be greedy. True happiness rests in doing good for all, not individual gain.
13Mencius (372 – 289 B.C.E.) Spokesperson for Confucian school Human nature was basically good.Placed emphasis on Confucian value of ren.Advocated government by benevolence and humanity.Critics charged Mencius held a naïve view of human nature.
14Legalism Emerged after fall of Zhou and Period of Warring States. Disdain for Confucian virtues.Favored authoritarian state that ruled by force.Human nature is evil and requires discipline and restraint.In a proper state, the army controls and the people labor.Educated discourse and courtesy are frivolous.Confucianism values still remained in spite of the arrival of legalism.During the Qin and early Han periods, an alternate system of political thought called legalism sprang up in China. Legalist writers prided themselves on their pragmatism. They disdained Confucian virtues in favor of an authoritarian state that ruled by force. Human nature for the legalists was evil and required restraint and discipline. In a proper state, the army would control and the people would labor. The idea of pleasures in educated discourse or courtesy was dismissed as frivolous. Although legalism never captured the widespread approval that Confucianism did, it too entered the political traditions of China, wehre a confucian veneer was often combined with strong arm tactics.
15Daoism Emerged during “Period of Warring States.” First appealed to upper classes.Embraced traditional Chinese beliefs in nature’s harmony but added sense of nature’s mystery.Produced a division in China’s religious and philosophical culture.Classical China produced a more religious philsophy – Daoism- which arose at roughly the same time as Confucianism, during the warring centuresi of the Zhou dynasty. Daoism first appealed to many of the upper classes, who had an interest in a more elaborate spirituality. Daoism embraced traditional Chinese beliefs in nature’s harmony and added a sense of nature’s mystery. As a spiritual alternative to Confucianism, Daoism produced a durable division in China’s religious and philosophical culture. This new religion, vital for Chiense civilization, although never widely exported, was furthered by Laozi, who probably lived during the fifth centurey B.C.E. Laozi, often called Lao-tsu in popular Daoist texts) stressed that nature contains a divine impulse that directs all life. True human udnerstanding comes in withdrawing form the world and contemplating this life forc. Dao, which means “the way of nature” refers to the same basic indescribable force.
16DaoismLaozi (5th Century B.C.E.) stressed that “nature contains a divine impulse that directs all life.”True human understanding comes from withdrawal from the world and contemplating life force.Dao means “the way of nature.”Harmony comes from humility and frugal living.Political activity and learning are irrelevant to a good life.
17Daoism and Confucianism Individuals did come to embrace some elements from Daoism and Confucianism.Still, many emperors favored Daoism.Daoism posed no political threat.As Daoism became an increasingly formal religion, it provided the Chinese with a host of ceremonies that promoted harmony.Han persuaded Daoist priests to include expressions of loyalty to the emperor in their temple service,s making it compatible with Confucianism
18Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.E. – 207 B.C.E.Qin Shi Huangdi (First Emperor) made himself sole ruler of China.Shi Huangdi was a brutal but effective ruler.He assumed control of feudal estates.He ordered nobles to leave regions and appointed non-aristocratic bureaucrats to regions.His powerful army crushed regional resistance.One regional ruler deposed the lat Zhou emperor and within 35 years made himself sole ruler of China. He took the title Qin Shi Huangdi or First Emperor. The dynastic name, Qin, conferred on the whole country its name of China. Shi Huangdi was a brutal ruler, but effective given the circumstances of internal disorder.He understood that China’s problem lay in the regional power of the aristocrats, and like many later centralizers in world history, he worked virgorously to undo this force. He ordered nobles to leave their regions and appear at his court assuming control of their feudal estates. China was organized into large provinces ruled by bureaucrats appointed by the emperor. Shi Huangdi was careful to select his officials from non aristocratic groups, so that they would owe their power to him and not dare to develop their own independent bases. Under Shi Huangdi’s rule, powerful armies crushed regional resistance.
19Shi HuangdiExtended Chinese territory to the south reaching present-day Hong Kong on South China Sea.
20Qin Dynasty Built a Great Wall which extended over 3,000 miles. Organized by central bureaucracyBuilt by forced labor.
21Political Organization of Shi Huangdi’s Dynasty Provided a single law code for the whole empire.Established a uniform tax system.Appointed governors to exercise military and legal powers in each district.Governors named officials for smaller regions.
22Shi Huangdi’s Political and Cultural Contributions. Shi Huangdi ordered a national census.Standardized coinage, weights, and measures throughout entire realm.Made Chinese written script uniform, providing a basic language for all educated Chinese to communicate.Sponsored new irrigation projects.Promoted manufacturing, particularly of silk cloth.Burning of Books and Execution of 460 scholars who criticized his policies.
23The Demise of Shi Huangdi’s Dynasty High Taxes that supported military expansion and construction of Great Wall.On emperor’s death in 210 B.C.E., massive revolts by peasants broke out.
24Tomb of the First Emperor 700,000 laborers constructed this monument and tomb.Contains emperor, grave goods, sacrificed slaves, concubines, and many craftsmen who made the tomb.Qin Shihuangdi was laid to rest in underground palace lined with bronze and protected by traps and crossbows rigged to fire at intruders.Ceiling has paintings of stars and planets.15,000 terra cotta sculptures detailing detailed soldiers, horses and weapons.
25Han Dynasty: 202 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.Liu Bang retained centralized administration of the Qin.Reduced brutal oppression of the Qin.Expanded Chinese territory, pushing into Korea, and central Asia.This expansion gave rise to direct contact with India and developed contact with Middle East.
26Han Wudi (Wu Ti) B.C.E.Enforced peace throughout continent of Asia.Embraced more territory.Society flourished.Han Wudi relied upon Legalist principles of government while incorporating Confucianism into university education for bureaucrats.Whereas the Qin stressed central authority, the Han expanded the powers of the bureaucracy.The Qin and Hna dynasties of classical China established a distinctive and successful kind of government. The Qin stressed central authority whereas the Han expanded the powers of the bureacracy. The structure of this government explained how such a vast territory could be effectively ruled for the Chinese empire was indeed the largest political system in the classical world.
27Political Organization Under the Han Emphasized importance of creating a large, highly skilled bureaucracy. (130,000 bureaucrats)Han Wudi established exams for his bureaucrats, the first civil service exam.He established a school to train men of exceptional talent and ability for the national exams. (Confucianism)Individuals from lower ranks were occasionally recruited.Han bureaucratic system lasted until 20th century.This bureaucratic system provided a check to complete upper class rule. It also tended to limited the exercise of arbitrary power by the emperor himself. As a result the Chinese bureaucracy from the Han period lasted until the 20th century.
28ConfucianismThe Analects (the Confucian doctrine) was revived under the Han emperors.The Han saw usefulness of Confucian emphasis on political virtue and social order.Confucian learning was incorporated into Han training of bureaucrats.Confucianism was primarily a system of ethics—do unto others as your status and theirs dictate—and a plea for loyalty to the community. It confirmed the distaste that many educated Chiense had developed for religious mysteries, as well as their delight in learning and good manners. Confucian doctrine, carefully recorded in a book called the Analects, was revived under the Han emperors who saw the usefulness of Confucian emphasis on political virtue and social order. Confucian learning was also incorporated along with traditional literary works into the training of aspiring bureaucrats.
29Religion Among the Peasant Class Peasant class focused on polytheism and spirits of nature.Peasants created statues and household decorations honoring spirits.A belief in symbolic power of dragons emphasized fear of creatures and playful sense of courtship activities among spirits.Peasant class took on elements of Confucian values.
30Literature and Art During Classical Period Confucianism blended with literature and art among upper classes.Five Classics written during Zhou dynasty merged with Confucius doctrine to provide basis for civil service exams.Classic of Songs – 300 poems about love, joy, politics, and familyCalligraphy, bronze, pottery, carved jade and ivory, silk screens.
31Science in China During Classical Period Chinese astronomers developed calendar based on year of days.Later astronomers calculated movement of planets.Scientists invented a type of seismograph to register earthquakes during Han Dynasty.Developed anatomical knowledge and studied principles of hygiene that promoted long life.
32Social Structure in China During the Classical Period Serious gaps developed between upper class, which controlled large landed estates, and the masses, farmer-peasants who produced only what they needed to survive.Because of this division, literacy was confined mostly to the elite.Population was made up of land owners (2 percent of the population) and peasants who served them.In the southern rice region, property was owned and regular by the village or extended family rather than individuals.Beneath the peasantry, there was a group of “mean” people who performed rough transport and other unskilled jobs.Social status was passed from one generation to the next.In some cases, talented individuals from peasantry might be given access to education and rise within bureaucracy.
33Trade During Classical China Food exchange between the wheat and rice growing regions.Copper coins began to circulate.Trade routes did lead to India and Middle East, but most Chinese were ethnocentric.Chinese had no need or desire to learn from other societies.Performing artists were ranked in the mean group, despite the fact that the upper classes enjoyed plays and other entertainments provided by this group. Mean people were punished for crime more harshly than other gorups and were required to wear identifying green scarves.Household slaves also existed within this class structure, but their number was relatively few and China did not depend on slaves for actual production.
34Trade During Classical China Trade became more important during Zhou and Han dynasties.Focused on luxury items for upper class.Produced by artisans in the cities – silks, jewelry, leather goods, and furniture.Performing artists were ranked in the mean group, despite the fact that the upper classes enjoyed plays and other entertainments provided by this group. Mean people were punished for crime more harshly than other gorups and were required to wear identifying green scarves.Household slaves also existed within this class structure, but their number was relatively few and China did not depend on slaves for actual production.
35Technological Developments During Classical China Ox-drawn plows introduced 300 B.C.E.Under the Han, a new collar was invented to improve farming.Iron mining improved with invention of pulleys and winding gear.Production methods in textiles and pottery were highly developed.Under the Han, the first water-powered mills were introduced.Also under the Han, paper was invented improving system of government and bureaucracy.Performing artists were ranked in the mean group, despite the fact that the upper classes enjoyed plays and other entertainments provided by this group. Mean people were punished for crime more harshly than other gorups and were required to wear identifying green scarves.Household slaves also existed within this class structure, but their number was relatively few and China did not depend on slaves for actual production.
36Impact of Technology on Classical China Encouraged reliance on agriculture.Increased size of the population in the countryside.Expansion of cities and manufacturingUnder the Han Dynasty, the population tripled (60,000,000)
37Gender Roles in Classical China During Han dynasty, patriarchal family was enhanced through importance of filial piety and women’s subordination to men.Confucian Classic of Filial Piety taught that children should obey and honor their parents and superiors.Ban Zhao, educated woman from Han family, wrote Admonitions for Women that emphasized humility, obedience, and devotion to husbands.The mother of a famous confucian philosopher, Mencius, continually claimed how humble she was, but during the course of his life she managed to exert considerable influence over him. There was even a clear hierarchical order for children, with boths superior to girls and the oldest son having the most enviable position of all.
38The Family in Classical China Tight family organization helped solidify economic and social views as well as political life.Stressed authority to extremes. Confucius said, “There are no wrongdoing parents.”Law courts did not prosecute parents who injured or killed children.Culture stressed strict control of one’s emotions.Family was at center of orderly hierarchy.
39The Fall of the HanLater Han emperors did not address the problem of land distribution.Wealthy classes lived in luxury while peasants worked under difficult conditions.Banditry and rebellions organized by desperate peasants continued.The Yellow Turban uprising raged throughout China and tested Han state during 2nd century C.E.Internal weakness eventually brought an end to the Han.