4Energy objectives:1. Explain that living things need energy to fight entropy, grow, develop, maintain homeostasis,and move etc.The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics states that all things move toward disorder (entropy) spontaneously! Livings things maintain order! This requires lots of energy!The ultimate source of this energy is…
6MetabolismLiving things break down things, which often releases energy.: catabolismLiving things build up things, which often requires energy: anabolismTogether these processes are known as metabolism.
7Photosynthesis captures this energy of the sun and transfers it to Form bonds in organic molecules like glucose.Be able to:Write the equation for photosynthesis:6CO2 + 6H2O light C6H12O6 + 6O2
8During photosynthesis: energy produced by splitting water in the light dependent reactions is used to bond Carbon dioxide into glucose (sugar) in the light independent reactions
9Energy is transferred from the bonds of glucose to… The bonds of ATP
10Explain that energy is stored in an ATP molecule in the phosphate to phosphate bonds and how it can be released when those bonds are broken producing ADP + P + energy.
11This can be accomplished by Respiration Which transfers the energy in the chemical bonds of organic molecules like glucose and stores it in the bonds of molecules like ATP where it is more easily released when needed by the cell for other chemical reactions.Glucose + oxygen yields carbon dioxide + water plus ATP
12Respiration Write the equation for respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O CO2 + 6H2O
13Respiration starts in the cytoplasm and finishes in the mitochondrion Know that when oxygen is present it is called aerobic respiration and is much more efficient at producing ATPand that when oxygen is not presentit is called anaerobic when no oxygen is used and it is less efficient at producing ATP.
14ATP is the molecule that stores energy for easy use within the cell.ATP is formed when a phosphate group is added to ADP.When ATP is broken down, ADP and phosphate are formed and energy is released.
16Green organisms trap the energy in sun light and store it in the bonds of certain molecules for later use. They are called Autotrophs.Organisms that can not use sunlight directly obtain energy by consuming plants or other organisms that have consumed plants.They are called Heterotrophs!!!Photosynthesis is the process by which cells use light energy to make simple sugars.
17Chlorophyll in the chloroplast of plant cells “traps” light energy needed for photosynthesis. The light reactions of photosynthesis produce ATP and NADPH and result in the splitting of water molecules.The reactions of the carbon cycle make carbohydrates using CO2 along with ATP and NADPH from the light reactions.
19In cellular respiration, cells break down carbohydrates to release energy. The first stage of cellular respiration, Glycolysis, takes place in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen.The citric acid cycle takes place in mitochondria and requires oxygen.
20ATP 3 parts 1. sugar: ribose 2. nitrogen base: adenine 3 ATP 3 parts 1. sugar: ribose 2. nitrogen base: adenine Phosphate groups
21MAKING ATP: AMP + P = ADP ADP + P = ATP ATP = ADP + ENERGY ATP SYNTHASE is the enzyme that attaches the third phosphate to the molecule. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid membrane and is like a rotary engine. The movement of H+ ions through it spins the enzyme, providing the energy to bond a P on to the ADP.
26HeterotrophsBoth Autotrophs and Heterotrophs depend on these Organic Compounds for the energy to Power Cellular Activities
27SC. 912.L.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within the cell
28What are the three parts of ATP? Ribose, sugar, 2 phosphatesSugar, 1 phosphate and a nitrogen baseAdenine, sugar and 3 phosphatesAdenine, deoxyribose and 3 phosphates.
29What is the molecule that most often used as a source of energy for chemical reactions in the cell? GlucoseATPADPNADPHStarch
30What is the original source of energy for all living things on earth? Fossil fuelsUraniumSunlightWindHydroelectric
311. Why do living things need energy? To make new cells.To break downTo stay organizedAll of these are ways to fight entropy and are correct.
32What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics say about entropy? It takes energy to maintain entropyAll things move toward entropy spontaneously.Living things have lots of entropy.
33What kind of organisms can use sunlight to make food for themselves? HeterotrophsAutotrophsConsumersDecomposers
34What are the catabolic and anabolic reactions of the cell together known as? CatabolismAnabolismMetabolism
35What is required to fight the entropy that the 2nd law says will spontaneously occur? ATPCatabolismAnabolismPhotosynthesisAll of these might work
36SC. 912.L.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within the cell 1. Why do living things need energy? __________________________________________________2. What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics say about entropy? __________________________________________________3. What is the original source of energy for all living things on earth? __________________________________________What kind of organisms can use the sun to make energy? ______________________________What kind of organisms need to eat other things? ________________________________
374. What are the catabolic and anabolic reactions of the cell together known as? __________________________________5. What is required to fight the entropy that the 2nd law says will spontaneously occur? ____________________________6. What is the molecule that most often used as a source of energy for chemical reactions in the cell? ________________What are the three parts of ATP? _________________________ __________________________ and three ___________________________________
38SC. 912.L.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within the cell 1. Why do living things need energy? To fight entropy2. What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics say about entropy? All things move spontaneously toward disorder (entropy)3. What is the original source of energy for all living things on earth? The sunWhat kind of organisms can use the sun to make energy? AutotrophsWhat kind of organisms need to eat other things? Heterotrophs
394. What are the catabolic and anabolic reactions of the cell together known as? Metabolism 5. What is required to fight the entropy that the 2nd law says will spontaneously occur? Energy, ATP6. What is the molecule that most often used as a source of energy for chemical reactions in the cell? ATPWhat are the three parts of ATP? Ribose ( sugar) , Adenine ( nitrogen base) and 3 Phosphates
407. What does ATP become when it loses a phosphate group? _______ 8. Where in the ATP molecule is the energy stored? _______________________________________________________9. How does ATP release energy? _____________________________________________________________________10. Write the equation that shows the release of energy from ATP. ___________________________________________ ________________________________________11. What is the main role that ATP plays within a cell? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________12. Why are the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered a cycle? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
417. What does ATP become when it loses a phosphate group? ADP 8. Where in the ATP molecule is the energy stored? In the chemical bonds9. How does ATP release energy? Energy is released when the bonds between the phosphates are broken.10. Write the equation that shows the release of energy from ATP. ATP ADP + P11. What is the main role that ATP plays within a cell? When coupled with other chemical reactions, it supplies energy for activation for many chemical reactions.12. Why are the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered a cycle? The products of one are the reactants of the other, they supply each other with what is needed!
45Photosynthesisthe process by which plants make sugar from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide):
46Sunlight shines through the top of the leaf and reaches the next layer of cells. The light energy is trapped by the chlorophyll in the chloroplasts. In the chloroplasts, a process that uses water changes the light energy into a kind of chemical energy. This chemical energy is stored in the chloroplasts. The electrons in chlorophyll are excited and travel down electron transport chains!
47Air enters the leaf through the stomata and moves into tiny spaces around the food-making cells in the leaf.Carbon dioxide from the air passes through the cell walls and membranes of the cells. Carbon dioxide enters the chloroplasts where the previously stored chemical energy converts the carbon dioxide into sugar.
48Phloem tubes in the plant carry sugar from the leaf cells to other parts of the plant, such as roots, stems, and fruits. Cells in these parts of the tree store some of the sugar
56STAGE 1 - CALLED THE LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS. Energy is Captured from Sunlight.Water is Split into Hydrogen Ions, Electrons, and Oxygen (O2).The O2 Diffuses out of the Chloroplasts (Byproduct).
57Light is Captured by Pigments in Chloroplasts Chlorophyll - absorbs violet, blue and red light (reflects green) –The TWO most common Types of Chlorophylls are designated Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b.
58Chlorophyll FA new kind of chlorophyll that catches sunlight from just beyond the red end of the visible light spectrum has been discovered. The new pigment extends the known range of light that is usable by most photosynthetic organisms. Harnessing this pigment’s power could lead to biofuel-generating algae that are super-efficient, using a greater spread of sunlight than thought possible.
61Carotenoids - absorb blue and green light (reflect yellow, orange, or red). Carotenoids are visible in the fall, when plants stop producing chlorophyll, leaves take on a yellow/red color Phycocyanins - absorb green and yellow light (reflect blue or purple) Xanthophyll - type of carotenoid that reflects yellow light (seen in the autumn)
62STAGE 2- The Light Energy is Converted to Chemical Energy, which is Temporarily Stored in ATP and NADPH.
63STAGE 3 - CALLED THE CALVIN CYCLE. . The Chemical Energy Stored in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of Organic Compounds (Sugars),Using Carbon Dioxide, CO2.
69Write the equation for Photosynthesis: LIGHT6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
70Write the equation for respiration: C6H12O6 + 6 O CO2 + 6 H2O
71PHOTOSYNTHESIS:PLANTS CONVERT THE ENERGY OF SUNLIGHT INTO THE ENERGY OF CHEMICAL BONDS IN CARBOHYDRATES.
72LIGHT REACTIONS:LIGHT STRIKES PIGMENTS, WATER IS SPLIT INTO HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN, ATP AND NADPH ARE PRODUCED.
73CARBON FIXATION:HYDROGEN IS COMBINED WITH CARBON DIOXIDE TO FORM CARBOHYDRATES.
74The CO2 goes into making the carbohydrate The H2O provides the Oxygen that is given off and the Hydrogen used to make the carbohydrate.
75The reactants must be in constant supply and the temperature must be in favorable ranges for photosynthesis to occur. If they are not, the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.
76PIGMENTS: found in plastids, such as the chloroplast. Molecules that absorb light and reflect unused light.Chlorophyll a and bCarotenoidsXanthophylls
77Water is used in the light reaction, split, provides electrons and H+ ions, and provides the oxygen that is released from plants.Carbon dioxide is used in the Calvin cycle to produce carbohydrate (PGAL) by adding H+ ions to the carbon.The original source of energy for this is the SUN
781. What is the equation of photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O + LIGHT ENERGY C6H12O6 + 6O22. What are the reactants of photosynthesis?6CO2 + 6H2O3. What are the products of photosynthesis? C6H12O6 + 6O24. What is the main purpose of photosynthesis? To use sunlight as an energy source to make organic molecules from inorganic molecules.5. What happens in the light dependent reactions? Sunlight is converted into ATP and NADPH bonds and water is split producing oxygen6. What happens in the Calvin cycle? Carbon dioxide is bonded together with hydrogens using the APAT and NADPH as energy from the light reactions to make glucose.
797. Where in the cell does photosynthesis occur? Chloroplast 8. What pigment is responsible for capturing most of the sunlight energy for the process of photosynthesis? Chlorophyll_Are there other pigments in plants? yes What is the advantage of having different pigments? different wavelengths of light can be used for photosynthesis.9. Where does the oxygen that is released in photosynthesis come from? When water is split in the light reaction10. What 2 energy storing molecules are made after the light reactions? ATP and NADPH
8011. What is the source of carbon for the glucose in the equation for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide 12. In the chemical reaction6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2 , where does the energy from the sun go at the end of the chemical reaction? into the bonds of the glucose molecules13. The ability to transfer the energy of the sun into chemical bond energy is completed by a process known as what? photosynthesis
82The process:Fill in the blanks below to show what occurs during the light reactions:Light causes _________________ in photosystem II to go into a high energy state.__________________ is split, releasing an _______________________ into the electron transport system, a ______________________ into the thylakoid, and _________________ as a waste product._______________________ are moved from photosystem II to photosystem I, which absorbs the light and moves excited electrons along electron carriers again and finally to ________________, forming NADPH._____________________ is made when protons from water build up inside the thylakoid and then diffuse through ATP synthases channels.The ____________________ and ___________________ produced during the light reactions are used to produce organic molecules during the Calvin cycle.
83The process:Fill in the blanks below to show what occurs during the light reactions:Light causes electrons in photosystem II to go into a high energy state.water is split, releasing an electron into the electron transport system, a hydrogen ion into the thylakoid, and oxygen as a waste product.electrons are moved from photosystem II to photosystem I, which absorbs the light and moves excited electrons along electron carriers again and finally to NADP, forming NADPH.ATP is made when protons from water build up inside the thylakoid and then diffuse through ATP synthase channels.The ATP and NADPH produced during the light reactions are used to produce organic molecules during the Calvin cycle.
841. Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the light-independent reaction? Fill in the blanks below to show what occurs during the Calvin cycle. See page 226____________ combines with six 5-carbon compounds to make twelve 3-carbon molecules.The chemical energy in __________________ and ___________________ is passed to the 3-carbon molecules.Two of the 3-carbon molecules are used to make ___________________ and other organic compounds.The enzyme ____________________ changes ten 3-carbon molecules into six 5-carbon molecules to continue the cycle.
851. Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the light-independent reaction? No light is needed for this process to occur.6 carbon dioxide molecules combine with six 5-carbon compounds to make twelve 3-carbon molecules.The chemical energy in ATP and NADPH is passed to the 3-carbon molecules.Two of the 3-carbon molecules are used to make glucose and other organic compounds.The enzyme rubisco changes ten 3-carbon molecules into six 5-carbon molecules to continue the cycle.
86Cellular respirationTakes place in the mitochondria
88Vocabulary: 1. Anaerobic 2. Aerobic respiration 3. Glycolysis 4. Krebs cycle5. Fermentation6. Electron Transport Chain
89CELLULAR RESPIRATION . CELLULAR RESPIRATION: Releases the energy stored in glucose into ATP, a useable form of energy.
90Energy to do work!By Breaking Down Organic Molecules into simpler molecules, CELLS RELEASE ENERGY.
91ATP is the Main Energy Currency of Cells. Some of the energy is used to make ATP from ADP and Phosphate.
92STAGE 1- Cellular Respiration BEGINS with a Biochemical Pathway called GLYCOLYSIS, that takes place in the Cells Cytosol or cytoplasm,This yields a relatively Small amount of ATP and does not require oxygen.
93GLYCOLYSIS notes:GLYCOLYSIS: The first part of respiration occurs with out oxygen.This changes glucose in several steps to form Pyruvic Acid and 2 ATPThe energy needed to start this reaction is two ATP; it makes 4 ATP so the net gain is 2 ATP. It also produces 2 molecules of NADH
96STAGE 2The Second Stage of Cellular Respiration is called OXIDATIVE RESPIRATION, and follows Glycolysis. Oxidative because it uses oxygen!!Oxidative Respiration takes place within the Mitochondria. This is far more effective than Glycolysis at recovering energy from food molecules.
97AEROBIC PHASE: (required) Uses the pyruvic acid and OXYGENKrebs Cycle: Pyruvic acid breaks into carbon dioxide and a 2 carbon molecule called acetyl aCoenzyme A bonds to the acetyl group acetyl co AAcetyl Co a enter the Krebs cycle, 9 steps change it.
992 CO2 are released,3 molecules of NADH1 molecule of FADH21 molecule of GTP/ ATP
100OXIDATIVE RESPIRATION IS THE METHOD BY WHICH PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS GET THE MAJORITY OF THEIR ENERGY.
101ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The real energy producer ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The real energy producer!!!! The last electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is OXYGEN.It combines with hydrogen and forms water that is released.(Required)
109Lactic acid hurts!!!DURING EXERCISE, BREATHING CANNOT PROVIDE YOUR BODY WITH ALL THE OXYGEN IT NEEDS FOR AEROBIC RESPIRATION. WHEN MUSCLES RUN OUT OF OXYGEN, THE CELLS SWITCH TO LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
110The side effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation is Muscle Fatigue, Pain, Cramps, and you feel Soreness
111Alcoholic fermentation Bakers use Alcoholic Fermentation of YEAST to make Bread.Alcoholic Fermentation is used to make wine, beer, and the ethanol added to gasoline to make gasohol
112Alcoholic fermentation: ANAEROBIC Bacteria and yeast can convert the pyruvic acid into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
114Oxygen!!!!! Oxygen SERVES as the FINAL Acceptor of Electrons. By Accepting Electrons from the last molecule in the Electron Transport Chain, Oxygen allows additional electrons to pass along the chain. Allowing ATP to continue to be synthesized.
116Section 3 Cellular Respiration 1. What is the equation for aerobic respiration?_C6H12O6 + 6O2 CO2+ 6H2O + (ATP)2. What are the reactants for aerobic respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O23. What are the products of aerobic respiration? CO2+ 6H2O4. What are the products of anaerobic respiration? CO2 alcohol or lactic acid5. What is the main purpose of cellular respiration? To convert the energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules such as glucose into a more useable form such as ATP.Where in the cell does respiration occur? Glycolysis in the cytoplasm, then it finishes in the membrane of the mitochondrion
117Is the process with or without oxygen more efficient at producing ATP Is the process with or without oxygen more efficient at producing ATP? It is most efficient with oxygen, 38 ATP with, only 2 without.Which part of the process makes the most ATP? Electron transport9. Large molecules contain energy in the chemical bonds. The cell must break these bonds in an orderly manner in order to retrieve the energy in the form of ATP. What process is used in the cell to convert these organic molecules into ATP molecules? Cellular respiration
118Specific Process questions: During glycolysis, what is glucose broken down into?2 pyruvic acid molecules.2. How is NADH produced during glycolysis? When hydrogen ions combine with NAD as glucose is split into two 3 carbon moleculesWhat is the net ATP gain during glycolysis? 2ATPWhere in the cell does pyruvate go after glycolysis is complete? Into the mitochondria
1195. Before pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle, __carbon dioxide____ is released and NADH is produced. __ 6. When acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon compound, citric acid is produced.7. As citric acid is broken down, 2 molecules of CO2 are released and 1 ATP, 3 _NADH, and 1 _FADH2_ are made.8. For each glucose molecule, how many turns of the Krebs cycle happen? 2 _9. Which energy carriers are used during electron transport? NADH and FADH210. What type of energy is produced during electron transport? ATP chemical bond energy
12011. How is water produced during electron transport 11. How is water produced during electron transport?when oxygen accepts the last electron, protons and electrons transfer to form water.12. Which part of cellular respiration is anaerobic? Glycolysis is anaerobic because it does not require oxygen. Which is aerobic? The krebs and electron transport chain are aerobic because of the oxygen at the end of the transport chain.13. How many total ATP are produced per glucose?38 If oxygen is not available for aerobic respiration, what happens? Anaerobic respiration occurs or fermentation. Lactic acid or alcohol are the end products.
1211. What is true about the products of photosynthesis and the reactants of respiration? They are the same2. Which process, photosynthesis or respiration stores energy?_photosynthesis3. Which process, photosynthesis or respiration releases energy? Respiration4. How are the equations for photosynthesis and respiration related? They are the reverse except for the light needed in photosynthesis.What method of making ATP do both Photosynthesis and respiration processes have in common? ( think membranes) electron transport chains in the membranes.SC.912.L Discuss the role of anaerobic respiration in living things and in human society.When does lactic acid form in humans? Muscles when overworked and anaerobic processes take over.What is a commercial use for an anaerobic byproduct? Alcohol and cheese products.3. Yeast and some bacteria use another anaerobic pathway besides the lactic acid one. What is it and how can the products be used in society? Fermentation to produce alcohol
125Photosystems I & IIPhotosystem II - photons split water molecules (producing O2), electrons produced from the split travel down electron transport chain. Energy provided in the transport chain is used to make ATP from ADPPhotosystem I - photons boost electrons to a higher energy state, electrons travel down electron transport chain, energy is used to make NADPH from NADP.The ATP and the NADPH are used for the next main step, the Calvin cycle, or "Light independent reactions" - also called the Dark Reaction
126Quiz 1. Draw a molecule of ATP 2. Where is energy stored in an ATP molecule?3. What does ATP become when it loses a phosphate?4. What is the formula for glucose?5. where does photosynthesis occur in a cell?6. Where does respiration occur in a cell?7. List 2 reasons living things need energy?8. Do plants use both photosynthesis and respiration?9. Do animals use both photosynthesis and respiration?10. Write the equation for photosynthesis.
127Energy and Living Things Energy from sunlight flows through living systems, fromautotrophs to heterotrophs.Photosynthesis and cellular respiration form a cyclebecause one process uses the products of the other.ATP supplies cells with energy needed for metabolism.
128PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis has three stages. First, energy is capturedfrom sunlight. Second, energy is temporarily stored in ATPand NADPH. Third, organic compounds are made usingATP, NADPH, and carbon dioxide.Pigments absorb light energy during photosynthesis.Electrons excited by light travel through electron transportchains, in which ATP and NADPH are produced.
129Through carbon dioxide fixation, often by the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is used to make organic compounds, which store energy.Photosynthesis is directly affected by environmental factors such as the intensity of light, the concentration of carbon dioxide, and temperature.
130Cellular RespirationCellular respiration has two stages. First, glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP.Second, a large amount of ATP is made during aerobicrespiration. When oxygen is not present, NAD+ is recycledduring the anaerobic process of fermentation.
132The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration.During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain.When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD+ needed for glycolysis to continue.