2Over a million different types have been identified! Animals likely evolved from protozoans.Kingdom Protista
3Section 1 blastula (596) ectoderm (596) endoderm (596) mesoderm (596) body plan (598)asymmetrical (598)radial symmetry (598)bilateral symmetry (598)cephalization (599)coelom (600)acoelomate (600)pseudocoelomate (600)coelomate (600)phylogenetic tree (602)
4Characteristics of Animals All animals share these general features:heterotrophy,mobility,multicellularity,sexual reproduction,diploidy,the absence of a cell wall,cells organized as tissues, andblastula formation.
5heterotrophy,Can’t make their own food… must eat things.
6mobility, Animals can swim, crawl, walk, run, and even fly. Some only move in the larval stage… the sponge
7multicellularity, Made up of more then one cell! Although animals come in a wide range of sizes, the cell sizes are all very similar!
8sexual reproductionAlmost all animals reproduce sexually by producing gametes.Unlike the egg cells, the sperm cells of animals have a flagella and are highly mobile.
9diploidy,adults have two copies of each chromosome, one inherited from their father and one from their mother.
10the absence of a cell wall, Among the cells of multicellular organisms, only animal cells lack rigid cell walls. The absence of a cell wall has allowed animals mobility that other multicellular organisms do not have.
11blastula formationIn all animals except sponges, the zygote (fertilized egg cell) undergoes cell divisions that form a hollow ball of cells called a blastula.
12cells organized as tissues Cells within the blastula eventually develop into three distinct layers of cells endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm . These layers are called the primary tissue layers because they give rise to all of the tissues and organs of the adult body.
13tissuestissues are groups of cells with a common structure that work together to perform a specific function.
14Body SymmetryAll animals have their own particular body plan, a term used to describe an animal’s shape, symmetry, and internal organization.
16Asymmetry.Animals that grow in an irregular pattern, such as a sponge, show asymmetry.
17radial symmetry Animals with radial symmetry have body parts arranged around a central axis.
18bilateral symmetry Animals with bilateral symmetry have a distinct right and left half, and most display cephalization.
19body plansAnimals have one of three basic body plans: acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate.
20coeloma body cavity, coelom or (SEE luhm), a fluid-filled space found between the body wall and the digestive tract (gut).This space is lined with cells that come from mesoderm.
21Coelomates are either protostomes or deuterostomes. Protostomes (first mouth) are coelomates whose embryonic development shows a blastopore associated with a mouth.Deuterostomes (second mouth) are coelomates whose embryonic development shows a blastopore associated with an anus, with a second opening forming the mouth (hence "second mouth").
22acoelomateAnimals with no body cavity are called acoelomate (ay SEEL oh mayts).The space between an acoelomate’s body wall and gut is completely filled with tissues
23pseudocoelomatehave a body cavity located between the mesoderm and endoderm. Their body cavity is called a pseudocoelom (false coelom)
27Some animals have their bodies divided into segments Some animals have their bodies divided into segments. This allows them to specialize certain segments, such as for antennae, eyes, claws, etc. Humans, insects, and earthworms are examples of segmented animals.
28animal phylaThere are about 35 animal phyla, which contain an extraordinary range of body forms and body systems..
29phylogenetic treeTo visually represent the relationships among various groups of animals, scientists often use a type of branching diagram called a phylogenetic tree.It shows how animals are related through evolution
30Scientists classify animals using several different types of data, which include comparing anatomy and physiology, patterns of development, and DNA.
31The animal kingdom is divided in two groups: vertebrates and invertebrates
32Section 2 gastrovascular cavity (605) respiration (605) gill (605) open circulatory system (606)closed circulatory system (606)hydrostatic skeleton (607)exoskeleton (607)endoskeleton (608)hermaphrodite (609)external fertilization (610)internal fertilization (610)
33Animal Body SystemsBody systems are specialized to carry out different tasks.Levels of organization:Cells tissues organs organ systemsorganisms
34Digestive systemsSimple animals have a gastrovascular cavity with only one opening, while more-complex animals have a one-way gut.
37Respiration/ gas exchange Simple animals exchange gases directly through their skin.More-complex aquatic animals use gills, while terrestrial animals use a variety of respiratory organs, such as lungs.
41circulatory systemIn an open circulatory system, circulatory fluid leaves the vessels and enters the body cavity.In a closed circulatory system, blood remains in the vessels.
42open circulatory system -- primitive system found in insects and crustaceans -- blood not always contained in blood vessels -- heart pumps hemolymph (blood and cell fluids) into vessels, but vessels empty into large cavities or sinuses containing organs -- blood diffuses through tissues and back into heart.
43closed circulatory system -- found in higher animals -- system is "closed" because the blood is always contained in vessels.
54AsexualAsexual reproductive methods include fragmentation, splitting in two, and parthenogenesis.
55Reproduction that does not involve the fusion of two gametes is called asexual reproduction. A sponge, for example, can reproduce by fragmenting its body. Each fragment grows into a new sponge.Some species of sea anemone reproduce by pulling themselves in half, forming two new adult anemones
56sexual reproductionIn sexual reproduction, male and female gametes combine to form a new individual
57Human ReproductionEggs produced in the ovary are fertilized in the fallopian tube and implant in the uterus. Sperm, made in the testes by spermatogenesis, a form of meiosis, must fertilize the haploid egg for it to develop into an embryo.