Smoky Quartz brownish-yellow glassy crystal point hardenss = 7 Moonstone white, grey, orange dull/pearly box-like faces hardness = 5 Apache Tear black obsidian dull to glassy no faces hardness = 7 Sapphire grey, black dull hexagonal faces hardness = 9 Ruby pinkish red dull hexagonal faces hardness = 9
1. Line up your stones in order across your paper towel. Choose 7 you want to identify 2. Color - that's easy! 3. Luster = glassy, dull, or metallic? 4. Diaphaneity = is it transparent, translucent or opaque? Hold it up to the light! 5. Streak = use the white streak plate. If you don't see a streak, than the streak color is white 6. Hardness = - if your fingernail can't scratch it...then it is harder than 2.5 - if the stone can scratch a penny...then it is harder than 3.5 - if it can scratch the glass plate...then it is harder than 5.5 - Last, borrow a ruby or sapphire. If it can scratch that, then you have a ruby or sapphire. If not, you probably have a stone with a hardness of 7. 7. Density = mass / volume For mass, use the TBB. For volume, use water displacement.
Name of Stone Hardness Density
Hardness Density Hardness vs. Density
Peridot or Olivine Co lor: Green Luster: Glassy Diaphaneity: Transp or Transl Streak: Hardness: Density:
Garnet Co lor: red, purple, brown Luster: Glassy Diaphaneity: Transp or Transl Streak: Hardness: Density:
Amethyst Co lor: purple and white Luster: Glassy Diaphaneity: Transp or Transl Streak: white Hardness: 7 Density:
Rock Crystal Quartz Co lor: clear Luster: Glassy Diaphaneity: Transp Streak: white Hardness: 7 Density:
Smoky Quartz Co lor: brown, gray Luster: Glassy Diaphaneity: Transp Streak: white Hardness: 7 Density:
Agate Co lor: banded colors Luster: Glassy Diaphaneity: translucent to opaque Streak: white Hardness: 7 Density:
Moonstone Co lor: pale colors (gray, white, peach) Luster: Glassy to dull Diaphaneity: translucent to opaque Streak: Hardness: 5 Density:
Apache Tear Co lor: black Luster: Glassy to dull Diaphaneity: translucent Streak: Hardness: 7 Density:
Sapphire (Corundum) Co lor: grayish Luster: dull Diaphaneity: opaque Streak: none Hardness: 9 Density: Star Sapphire
FRONT OF ROOM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X No one sits here at this table
The Gem Dig 1. Every geologist must have a couple of paper towels in front of you during the dig 2. You must leave your gems out in front of you at all times. 2. At the end, each geologist will be given a plastic bag. Your name and period must be on this bag Geology Jail Guidelines If you go to jail, your bail is gems...and I get to pick. ·If you whine about wanting bigger or better stones...JAIL! ·If you whine about wanting me to go faster...JAIL! ·If you steal anyone's stones...JAIL...big time JAIL! ·If you attempt to trade during the dig...JAIL! ·If you splash the river water...JAIL! ·If you leave your river station and chase me around...JAIL! ·If you whine about JAIL...More JAIL!
GEM DIG Research and Background Information 1. What are minerals? An inorganic solid, made of one or more elements, with a crystalline structure (3,000 known!) 2. How are rocks different from minerals? A rock is mixture of 2 or more minerals. 3. What are crystals and gems? Form when minerals cool and have time and space to crystallize.
4. How do we identify gemstones? · ____________________________________________________ _
Hardness A stone can scratch anything below it on the chart
Questions: 1. True/False...Talc can scratch gypsum 2. True/False...Quartz can scratch Fluorite. 3. True/False...Fluorite can scratch Quartz 4. True/False...you can scratch quartz with a kitchen knife. 5. True/False...Calcite can put a scratch in glass. 6. True/False...your fingernail can scratch Gypsum. 7. True/False...nothing can scratch a diamond. Friedrich Mohs
Diaphaneity Transparent Translucent Opaque
Luster Metallic Glassy Dull
Density = mass (g) / volume (cm 3 ) Volume Mass
WHAT ARE ROCKS? Solid Earth materials that are made from a mixture of minerals. Abiotic (non-living)
Igneous http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0603/es060 3page01.cfm?chapter_no=investigation Formed directly from cooled magma!
Sedimentary when sediments get cemented together! CLASTIC: When little pieces of rocks are cemented together CHEMICAL: When water evaporates and leaves dissolved minerals behind ORGANIC: Accumulation of shells and bones
http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/types. html Let's get to know some rocks
Station #IgneousSedimentaryMetamorphic 1/// 2/// 3/// 4/// 5/// 6///
METAMORPHIC... changed due to heat and pressure below the Earth
New Snake Fossil found ·as long as a school bus ·big as a Volkswagon, 2500 pounds ·60 mya ·How could Earth support such a big cold-blooded animal? A mouse-human hybrid petered out after just one [cell] division. The cow and rabbit human hybrids went further, but stopped at the point when maternal DNA is supposed to kick in and turn the ball of cells into a proper embryo, Amphibious primitive whale...came onto land to give birth Cloning an extinct mountain goat!
Age of the Mammals Age of the dinosaurs - life advances in the oceans - life moves to the land soft-bodied aquatic life develops
·Often correlating with meteor impacts ·Depends on our revolution through the galaxy, when we go through a heavy band of meteors
PLATE TECTONICS!!! BBC Model: http://tanasi.gg.utk.edu/courses/101/public/BBC/default. html
1912...Alfred Wegener proposed theory of continental drift!
Today we call it the Theory of PLATE TECTONICS!!! http://www.suu.edu/faculty/colberg/Hazards/PlateTectonics/18_Pangaea.ht ml
http://www.exploratorium.edu/origins/antarctica/ideas/gondwana2. html Big Question: What is our evidence of plate tectonics? 1. Continental Shape Puzzle 2. Fossil similarities 3. Rock similarities 4. Andean mountains
Above: The possible appearance of the Earth 50 million years from now. ·Africa has collided with Europe, closing off the Mediterranean Sea. ·Atlantic has widened ·Australia has migrated north. ·Image courtesy of Dr. Christopher Scotese. So...if the plates keep on moving, then things are going to change, right???
Pangea Ultima...250 million years into the future! ·Africa is going to smash into Europe ·Australia migrates north to merge with Asia ·Atlantic Ocean will probably widen for a spell before it reverses course and later disappears.
Pass that plate, will ya? Its all about the plates! (cheesy title!) SUPERCONTINENTS Plate Tectonics PLATE DETAILS USE 3 SHEETS OF PAPER TO MAKE A FOLDABLE CONVECTION CURRENTS CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES = WHEN PLATES COME TOGETHER DIVERGENT AND TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES TITLE PAGE
1912 - Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift...the continents are on the move! his picture here! picture of pangaea 245 mya 205 mya SUPERCONTINENTS
PLATE DETAILS PICTURE OF LITHOSPHERE AND ASTHENOSPHERE Lithosphere = rocky crust, rigid upper mantle - Oceanic Crust (below oceans)...more dense - Continental Crust (land!)...less dense Asthenosphere = part of mantle, slowly moving ·7 major plates ·7 minor plates ·always in motion, 2-3cm per year
CONVECTION In asthenosphere: Hotter magma rises and cooler magma sinks CONVECTION CURRENTS!