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New (and old) oceanographic tools 2012 Workshop DHP 2012 Tina Miller-Way
Properties of water of interest Parameters, units, significance –Temperature –Salinity –Dissolved oxygen –Turbidity –Light levels –Depth…
Tools to measure these properties - depth Sounding lines –Problems… Pressure sensor Sonar
Tools to measure these properties - temperature Thermometer - Hg-based how to do at depth? - reversing
Tools to measure these properties - salinity Direct or indirect measurement Refractometer Conductivity sensor
Tools to measure these properties - turbidity Secchi disk transmissometer
Tools to measure these properties - dissolved oxygen Methods - chemical, electrical, optical Optode Polarigraphic electrode Winkler
Dissolved oxygen Concentration vs saturation Saturation - –expected amount given temp, pressure, salinity (ideal gas law) = 100% saturation –Under, over or at saturation –Units = % Concetration - units = mg/l (or ppm, mmol)
Dissolved oxygen nomographs Use nomographs to determine expected DO levels (100% saturation)
Dissolved oxygen nomographs use to determine saturation level
Example O 2 data
Tools to measure these properties - light What wavelengths? –Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensor How to account for changes in incident light? –Deck sensor
Other parameters Chlorophyll levels - fluorometer
But these properties vary with depth Typical open ocean profiles Called - a hydrocast
Monitoring units Hydrolab/YSI = brands
Combined units moored, deployed, mobile CTD Argo floats
CTD hydrocast See our CTD hydrocast
Other oceanographic tools Water samplers –Nansen / Niskin bottle –messengers
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Why does seawater in the Polar Regions become more dense as sea ice forms? and Why is this process called Brine Rejection.
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Analyze Immediately Dissolved Oxygen. Topics of Discussion *Definition & Pointers *Applications:Water Quality & Sewage Treatment *Theory *Partial Pressure.
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Units for Measuring Water Quality PARTS PER MILLION Most dissolved substances found in water are measured in parts per million (ppm) or even smaller.
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